Exclusion in education system
Exclusion in education does not only mean “out-of-school children.” It has many forms and expressions.
- Exclusion from having the life prospects needed for learning;
Examples: living under conditions inadequate for health and wellbeing, eg. inadequate housing, food, clothing; living under limited security and safety.
- Exclusion from entry into a school or an educational programme;
Examples: unable to pay entrance fees and tuition fees; being outside the eligibility criteria for entry; dressed in ways considered inadmissible by the school.
- Exclusion from regular and continuing participation in school or an educational programme;
Examples: school or programme too far to attend regularly; unable to continuously pay for participation; unable to spare time for attending school due to other life demands; school or programme closed down; illness or injuries.
- Exclusion from meaningful learning experiences;
Examples: teaching and learning process not meeting the learning needs of the learner; teaching and learning process not corresponding to the learning styles of the learner; the language of instruction and learning materials is not comprehensible; learner goes through negative and discouraging experiences at school or in the programme, eg. discrimination, prejudice, bullying, violence.
- Exclusion from a recognition of the learning acquired;
Examples: learning acquired in a non-formal programme not recognized for entry to a formal programme; learning acquired is not considered admissible for a certification; learning acquired is not considered valid for accessing further learning opportunities.
Exclusion from contributing the learning acquired to thedevelopment of community and society.
Examples: learning acquired is considered to be of little value by society; the school or programme attended is seen to have low social status and is disrespected by society; limited work opportunities that correspond to the area of learning acquired, or limited work opportunities in general; discrimination in society on the basis of socially ascribed differences that disregards any learning acquired by the person.