The Bromo Tengger Semeru-Arjuno biosphere reserve (Indonesia)

The Bromo Tengger Semeru-Arjuno biosphere reserve (Indonesia) is located in East Java province and has a total area of 413,374 hectares. The site consists of Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park (BTSNP), and the forest protected area of Raden Soerjo. There are 1,025 species of flora of which 226 species are orchid and 260 species are medicinal and ornamental plants. Several of the site’s mammal species are included in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red list of endangered species. The area is a model of good practice in terms of sustainable development at regional, national and international levels. The development of agriculture is envisaged in certain areas. Livestock farming of cattle, goats, sheep, horses, rabbits and chicken also contribute to the local economy. There is an active programme of research in the area on biodiversity management and carbon reduction.