© Komodo BR

Situated between Flores and Sumbawa in Indonesia, Komodo Biosphere Reserve and National Park is well known for its population of about 5,000 giant lizards, also called ‘Komodo dragons’ (Varanus komodoensis).They exist nowhere else in the world and are of great interest to scientists studying the theory of evolution.This lizard was also the reason for the designation of the area as a World Heritage site.

The predominant vegetation type is open grass-woodland savannah, mainly of anthropogenic origin, with patches of tropical rain forests, monsoon forests and mangroves. Apart from Komodo Island, the biosphere reserve also covers Rinca and Padar Island as well as numerous islets. It includes one of the world’s richest marine environments with coral reefs.

Declaration Date: 1977
Surface Area: 173,300
Administrative Division: located East of Wallace line,between the islands of Sumbawa and Flores at the borderof the Nusa, Tenggara Timur (NTT) and Nusa, TenggaraBarat (NTB) provinces, and at the heart of Coral TriangleCentre.

Human activities

  • Fishing (liftnets, dragnets, fishing rods, fishing traps,
  • Mariculture (seaweed farming)
  • Reef gleaning
  • Handicraft
  • Naturalist guide

Ecological characteristics

© OUR PLACE The World Heritage Collection

The Park is situated in a transition zone between Australian and Asian flora and fauna. Terrestrial ecosystems include open grass - woodland savanna, tropical deciduous (monsoon) forest, and quasi cloud forest.

The marine area constitutes 67% of the Park. The combination of strong currents, coral reefs and islets make navigation around the islands in Komodo National Park difficult and dangerous.

Komodo National Park includes one of the world's richest marine environments. It includes over 260 species of reef building coral, sponges (70 species), ascidians, marine worms, mollusks, echinoderms, crustaceans, cartilaginous and bony fishes (over 1,000 species), marine reptiles (green turtle and hawksbill turtle), and marine mammals (dolphins, whales, and dugongs).

Some notable species with high commercial value include sea cucumbers, Napoleon wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus), and groupers. The number of terrestrial animal species is important from a conservation perspective as some species are endemic. Many of the mammals are Asiatic in origin (e.g., deer, pig, macaques, civet). Several of the reptiles and birds are Australian in origin.

These include the orange-footed scrubfowl, the lesser sulpher-crested cockatoo and friarbird. Terrestrial plants found in Komodo National Park include grasses, shrubs, orchids, and trees. The most famous of Komodo National Park's reptiles is the Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis). It is among the world's largest reptiles and can reach 3,6 meters or more in length and weigh over 90 kg.

Protection classifications

At national level:Law No. 5/1990 Conservation of Biodiversity and Their Ecosystem, Law No. 41/1999 Forestry Management

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