Grazalema is located in the southwestern part of Sevilla, in the hydrographic complex of Cádiz. It is also situated in the extreme western side of the ‘Beticas’ mountain chains in the ‘Serranía de Grazalema’ comprising the Pinar, Zafalgar, Monte Prieto and Margarita’s mountains.

Declaration Date: 22 January 1977
Surface Area: 51.695 ha (core: 6 per cent; buffer: 81 per cent; transition 13 per cent)
Administrative Division: 14 Municipalities have their territories in the Biosphere Reserve

Human Activities

Forestry activities using wood and cork, open-range cattle and goat-raising, the famous wool and leather handicrafts and rural tourism are going from strength to strength.

Ecological Characteristics

Grazalema is a group of calcareous sierras, enjoying an extraordinarily rainy microclimate because of its location as one of the first mountain barriers to the moisture-laden winds from the Atlantic Ocean.

Annual rainfall is over 2,000 mm, encouraging one of the most extensive patches of forest in Spain. Noteworthy are the magnificent Cork Oak and Holm Oak groves and in the higher and shadier levels, the Pinsapo forests, the exceptional Mediterranean fir, endemic in these sierras and a remnant of the vast fir groves that covered the area during glaciations.

The diversity of fauna should be noted, particularly that of birds of prey such as the Golden Eagle, the Peregrine Hawk and one of Europe’s most numerous colonies of Griffon Vulture.

There are also mammals such as the Mountain Goat, and in the wooded areas, Deer and Wild Boar. The karstic formation of these calcareous sierras has resulted in a wealth of caves and potholes, harbouring such species as the Troglodyte Bat that has its major European wintering area in this location.

Protection Classifications

  • National Park
  • Specially Protected Bird Zone(ZEPA)

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                                                                                                   Last update: April 2014

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