In a changing world facing the impacts of climate change, population growth, human migrations and the appearance of new geopolitical centers that will affect the international economy, there is a need to protect water resources and stop the loss of biodiversity.

The excess of infrastructure in urban and agricultural landscapes results in a reduction of biomass and organic material, which leads to the acceleration of the hydrological cycle, making it variable and less favorable for biota and humanity (droughts and severe floods). In addition, these processes reduce carbon storage and the transfer of nutrients from minerals to organic forms, affecting the material cycle.

In order to reverse these processes, it is critical to reduce the use of energy and matter (associated with GDP), while regulating the hydrological and nutrient cycles in "novel ecosystems" (human modified, agricultural and urban) to advance the carrying capacity of the global ecosystem (eco-hydrological theory).

Increased carrying capacity is understood as an improvement in the management of water resources, biodiversity, ecosystem services for society, and resilience to growing forms of impact. In this process, potential risks and opportunities for sustainable development must be identified, delineating the ecological structure of the basin to enable possible improvement of the ecosystem, including biological productivity and diversity.

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