UNESCO’s work in Cambodia in the field of Culture is considerably wide and highly visible both at the national and international level. On July 2008, UNESCO World Heritage Committee listed the Preah Vihear Temple as a World Heritage Site—the fourth Khmer heritage listed as world heritage— after the Angkor Archaeological Park in December 1992. The Angkor Temples were seriously damaged during years of continuous war from the 1970s to the 1990s. Monuments and archaeological sites suffered from neglect, degradation and pillage. Following the Paris Peace Agreement in 1991 and the restoration of Constitutional Monarchy after the general elections in 1993, the Royal Government of Cambodia acknowledged the important role of culture in shaping national identity, strengthening social cohesion and contributing to the economic development of Cambodia. The capacity of the Royal Government for the protection, preservation and development of the Cambodian cultural heritage has been gradually strengthened over the past decade through the strengthening of the national authorities’ abilities to safeguard and promote the country’s national heritage.