Nationalist Extremism and Outcomes of State Policies in the Basque Country, 1979–2001

Enric Martínez-Herrera

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Abstract

Governments regard different policy options to mitigate insurgent nationalist terrorism and extremism. These policies can be tentatively classified according to whether they correspond to either a “public order” frame or a “responsive” frame. This article carries out time-series multivariant analyses aimed at evaluating what efficacy different policies inspired from one or another approach have had with respect to Basque nationalist terrorism and extremism as well as to assess the consistency of a number of well-established hypotheses. The findings suggest that a combination of efficacious, but flexible law-ruled public order policies, together with very substantial doses of responsiveness, explains the ongoing mitigation of these phenomena. However, the results also show that certain specific policy choices have been either inefficacious or counterproductive. There is also the paradox that terrorist violence itself tends to decrease the attitudinal social bases of insurgent nationalist extremism.

Suggested bibliographic reference for this article:

Martínez-Herrera, Enric. Nationalist Extremism and Outcomes of State Policies in the Basque Country, 1979–2001. IJMS: International Journal on Multicultural Societies. 2002, vol. 4, no.1, pp. 16-40. UNESCO. ISSN 1817-4574. www.unesco.org/shs/ijms/vol4/issue1/art2

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