People that are affected by poverty and decide to migrate often do not have another choice. Migration unfortunately includes a broad spectrum of exploitation that migrants may be confronted with, like trafficking, smuggling or exploitative labour of a person in a country of which he or she is not a national. The protocol against trafficking mentions various forms of exploitative labour(namely "prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude."), but it is very difficult to draw a line between 'real' exploitation on the one hand and poor wages, poor working conditions, social pressures, discrimination etc. on the other hand. However, all these situations following migration can be called exploitative migration.
Exploitative migration is often used as synonymous to forced migration (caused by conflict or natural disaster) and irregular migration (without the necessary documents), though all three terms designate very different problems.