Globalisation

There are many suggestions and debates on the question of how to define the concept of globalisation. Here are some few definitions commonly used:

"Globalisation is a multi-dimensional process characterised by:

  • The acceptance of a set of economic rules for the entire world designed to maximise profits and productivity by universalising markets and production, and to obtain the support of the state with a view to making the national economy more productive and competitive;
  • technological innovation and organisational change centred on flexibilisation and adaptability;
    the expansion of a specific form of social organisation based on information as the main source of productivity and power;
  • the reduction of the welfare state, privatisation of social services, flexibilisation of labour relations and weaker trade unions;
  • de facto transfer to trans-national organisations of the control of national economic policy instruments, such as monetary policy, interest rates and fiscal policy;
  • the dissemination of common cultural values, but also the re-emergence of nationalism, cultural conflict and social movements."
    R. Urzua, 20001

"Globalisation can be thought of as a process (or set of processes) which embodies a transformation of the spatial organisation of social relations and transactions."
David Held et al. 1999

"Globalisation refers to all those processes by which the peoples of the world are incorporated into a single world society, global society."
Martin Albrow, 1990

"Globalisation can [...] be defined as the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa."
Anthony Giddens, 1990

"The characteristics of the globalisation trend include the internationalising of production, the new international division of labour, new migratory movements from South to North, the new competitive environment that accelerates these processes, and the internationalising of the state [...] making states into agencies of the globalizing world."
Robert Cox, 1994


1 International Social Science, September 2000, Vol. 165. Blackwell Publishers/UNESCO, p.421.

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