A new social order: the rise of the middle classes

The progressive enrichment of those parts of society which were able to grasp the emerging developments in the international economy led to the formation of a boisterous “Middle Class”, which was comprised of mostly urban populations of traders and investors in trade, industrialists, artisans of new products, etc. As such, new divisions appeared in society, together with the new values they embraced.

The members of these self-conscious middle classes were fully aware of their historical role and of their image as the “social leaders” in this era of change. [more]

Three ladies of the Moškon family Oil on canvas by Jožef Tominc, 1829, National Gallery, Ljubljana The basic clothing of the bourgeois population in the first half of the 19th century was modelled on the Viennese Biedermeier fashion, which promoted short skirts in vivid colours and reinforced dress bodices.

Members of the upper middle class, on an excursion by automobile Photograph by Luca Comerio, Cetinje, 1910, National Museum of Montenegro, Cetinje At a time when modern transportation services were being gradually put in place by King Nikola I, cars were seen as signs of wealth and distinction.

Postcard of Bled, 1898 National Museum of Slovenia, Ljubljana Image of Lake Bled, which in the late 19th century became a fashionable European tourist resort, visited by aristocrats, pilgrims and tourists.

Views of Sofia Postcard, 1900, National Museum of History, Sofia Views of the National Assembly, Prince Palace, Banya Bashi Mosque, Prince Alexander Street, and the first High School for Boys.

King Charles I, the royal residence from Craiova and a Romanian soldier Postcard, 1903, National History Museum of Romania, Bucharest Post card issued in celebration of the royal visit of King Charles I to Craiova.

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