Creating and diffusing knowledge

The pursuit of learning and the dissemination of knowledge were much enhanced during this period. Modernity required practical knowledge to meet its needs. Also, the search for identity naturally led to a quest for one’s roots into the past, and traditions were correspondingly questioned or updated.

 A handful of literate men, often educated abroad and today considered iconic in their respective countries, studied, manipulated and standardized their languages and alphabets in order to turn them into tools for unification of the nations and formation of national identities. [more]

Enlightening Gospel by Sofronii, bishop of Vratsa Printed in Belgrade, printing house of Nikola Stefanović, 1868, National Museum of History, Sofia An instructive liturgical book, this gospel treated issues of morality and education. It was also useful for home reading and became extremely popular. Frequently reprinted, it was known as “Sophronie” after the author.

Pupils and teachers of the Nicosia Girls School Photograph, 1894, The Leventis Municipal Museum of Nicosia The Nicosia Girls School was founded in 1859. During the first years, its sole teacher used the monitorial method. The first female teacher training institution was opened in the same place in 1903.

Postcard of the Sava Croatian Ladies Tamboura Society Print on paper, unknown publisher (Germany or Austria ?); ca. 1907, Croatian History Museum, Zagreb New civic associations and societies established in the early 20th century served as places for socializing and national identification.

The Albanian Alphabet Commission Photograph by Kel Marubi, 1908, National phototeque “Marubi”, Shkoder / National History Museum, Tirana This congress in Monastir (1908) proclaimed the unification of the Albanian alphabet, based on the Latin alphabet. This influenced considerably the strengthening of national unity.

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