Public celebrations have always been a means of strengthening the cohesion of a group and of providing some visible structuring of its form and of its aims. The new society that emerged during the 19th century created, as in the rest of Europe, a number of events that served as rallies of national consciousness and exchange of information: anniversaries, parades, jubilees, exhibitions, sports, cultural or trade meetings, etc.
The celebrations were vested with symbolic meanings, sometimes provided spontaneously, sometimes as a result of deliberate political and ideological efforts. [more]
First Modern Olympic Games: marathon winner Spiros Louis enters the Panathenaic Stadium Photo zincography, April 1896, National Historical Museum, Athens The modern Olympic Games provided a link with Greece’s glorious past and were seen as a promise for a bright future.
Festive entry of Count Albert Nugent and his Yeomen to Zagreb on the occasion of ban Haller’s Inauguration Colour lithograph by Carl Göbel, printed by Johann Rauch in Vienna 1842, published by J. N. Havliček, Croatian History Museum, Zagreb During the 1830s and 1840s, the young intellectual citizenry of Civil Croatia, members of the Illyrian Movement, assumed a key role in the national integration process.
Kolo (Wheel dance) in front of the old church at Tašmajdan, Belgrade Watercolour by Carl GÖbel, 1881, Historical Museum of Serbia, Belgrade The wheel dance became popular in the 19th century among the middleclasses, providing an idealized picture of ‘folk life’.
The celebrations of the coronation of King Carol I, Bucharest, 1881 Colour lithograph by Grassiany, 1881, National History Museum of Romania, Bucharest