零艾滋,从教育开始

12月1日是世界艾滋病日(WAD),世界各地有许多人借此机会提高对这一疾病的认知,反思应对艾滋病的进展情况。今年直至2015年艾滋病日的主题都是“向零艾滋迈进”,即实现零新艾滋病感染、零歧视和零艾滋病死亡。由联合国艾滋病规划署(UNAIDS)发布的最新《2013世界艾滋病日报告》指出了一些显著的成就,例如在一些国家艾滋病性传播的减少,但是我们还不能满足于现状。已有成就还需进一步加强的同时,为了达到联合国国际商定目标,使年轻人中到2015年达到95%的知识水平,我们还有很多工作要做。

 世界艾滋病日,我们首先要强调已取得的巨大进展。这一切都很积极,但也很脆弱。 一些令人担忧的迹象表明,现在社会和行为方面计划的优先性可能有所下降。青年仍是全球行动的优先目标。这一群体仍需有效的艾滋病和性教育计划,能够获取高质量的、青年友好的性与生殖健康服务,以及消除对青年女性和女童的性暴力。

联合国教科文组织总干事伊琳娜·博科娃女士

教科文组织2013年地区活动

教育部门在预防新的感染,配套检测,治疗和护理,减少羞辱和歧视中发挥关键作用。为此,在2013年,联合国教科文组织参与了多项活动和项目。特别是通过向国家的教育部门提供技术支持,来帮助拉丁美洲和加勒比地区(LAC),东欧和中亚(EECA),非洲,中东和北非(MENA)和亚太国家。它还与民间社会和私营部门来协作增加应对艾滋病的影响和效率。

在过去几年中我们已经看到了应对艾滋病毒的鲜明变化。国际资金正在减少,而国内资金不断增加。随着“艾滋病疲劳”在一些地区的设置,优先权也在发生变化。医学研究和科学技术的进步都需要应对新的现实(请参阅关于教科文组织新的出版物中,绘制教育与艾滋病毒课程图表,它对这些变化进行分析并表明前进的方向)。

对此,联合国教科文组织的重点协调对青年和青少年的生殖教育和服务(更多细节见文章:今天的年轻人)。它还正在开发大量的有效的新途径,比如通过其与中国最受欢迎的搜索引擎--百度的合作,来提供性与生殖健康的信息(进一步细节见简讯)。此外,教科文组织正致力于培养组织重点人群(YKPs)中青年人项目的能力。为此,开展并试行在亚太地区的训练模块,以及开始对适应东非和南部非洲以及拉丁美洲和加勒比地区的培训。

请参阅下文2013年科文组织活动的区域概况

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Africa

At regional level in Eastern and Southern Africa, a process was launched to mobilize political commitment to make good quality HIV and sexuality education, as well as youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services available to all young people. A report Young People Today. Time to Act Now analysing the current situation and emphasising the need for coordinated action by education and health sectors was launched in October. The initiative, which involves 21 member states in the ESA region, will culminate in a meeting of ministers of education and health on 7 December 2013 in Cape Town, South Africa.

Implementation of a project to improve the sexual and reproductive health of young people by strengthening the quality and content of sexuality education in schools has started in six countries: Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. A further ten countries in the region will also benefit from regional capacity building and lesson sharing. The project addresses current gaps in sexuality education by working to build greater political commitment for the issue and by supporting the review and revision of curricula to ensure that they meet international standards and respond to the real needs of young people in each country. UNESCO will also focus its efforts on improving teacher education so that all teachers can feel confident and equipped with the appropriate information and pedagogical skills to teach this sensitive but critical subject. 

In Western and Central Africa, UNESCO has been very active in developing an HIV workplace policy for the education sector and supported the development of a regional network of teachers living with HIV. In order to better understand young people and adolescents’ needs, behaviour and knowledge levels two studies have been initiated in the region. The information gathered will be analysed and findings used to improve existing and future programmes. The region also developed a set of guidelines on how to scale up peer education based on experience from the Gambia.

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Eastern Europe and Central Asia

In the Ukraine, UNESCO supported the recent revision of primary and secondary school textbooks which integrated comprehensive sexuality education into the Basics of Health, an obligatory subject. It is estimated that nearly 4.6 million children will benefit from the new textbooks. In addition, an ICT-based teacher training course developed by the All-Ukrainian Association of Teachers and Trainers will be rolled-out early in 2014 to enhance capacities of teachers that deliver Basics of Health across the country.

UNESCO has supported the development of two new websites providing information on sexual and reproductive health in the region. It has also, in the past year, been working with Psychologies magazine to provide a comprehensive guide on adolescent development and sexuality for parents and future parents. The aim of the articles and booklets is to enable parents to support their children’s transition to adulthood and to enable them to make healthy and responsible choices. 

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Asia and the Pacific

The epidemiological context of the region has highlighted the importance of addressing the needs of young key populations, and UNESCO is working to ensure that the education sector responds to these needs. UNESCO recently launched a new resource to improve policy-making, planning and programme delivery for young key populations.

Entitled Young Key Populations at Higher Risk of HIV in Asia and the Pacific: Making the Case with Strategic Information, it provides guidance on ethical issues, how to collect and analyse data, and how to disseminate and use strategic information. UNESCO also initiated a programme to engage young people as leaders in HIV prevention and the fight to end stigma and discrimination. The programme is developing the capacity of leaders from key populations to get their voices heard and their needs met in national and regional HIV programmes. Other activities in the region include media training to reduce stigma and discrimination and the use of movies and museum exhibition to generate discussion and encourage action among young people. 

For further details of UNESCO’s work in the region please visit the Bangkok website.

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Latin America and the Caribbean

In Peru, UNESCO has assisted the ministry to integrate issues associated with sexuality education and personal well-being into the basic curriculum, which will have an impact on all children and young people attending schools. UNESCO is also supporting 15 Latin American countries to work together to improve comprehensive sexuality education through the Regional Community of Practice on Sexuality Education. In Latin America, UNESCO collaborated with UNAIDS, PAHO and the NGOs Vivo Positivo and Asosida to develop a Stigma and Discrimination Index and undertake a study on the barriers and the facilitators to access to health services for men-who-have-sex-with-men and transgender people.

Brazil has been very active in a South-South cooperation programme with Cape Verde. This included training teachers in Cape Verde using materials developed by UNESCO and the Brazilian ministries of health and education, setting up a distance learning course for teachers and health professional on youth, sexuality and HIV, and providing an online facilitator and organising a meeting of youth from both countries to exchange ideas and train them in edu-communications on the topics of violence prevention, HIV, STIs and health promotion.

 

相关信息

联合国教科文组织总干事伊琳娜·博科娃女士的致辞 (PDF) 
阿文 | 中文 | 英文 | 法文 | 俄文 | 西文 |


联合国艾滋病规划署(UNAIDS)执行干事的致辞 (PDF)
英文 | 法文 俄文 | 西文 |

背景

往年:  2012 2011 

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教科文组织出版物

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制定艾滋病教育课程

发现艾滋病毒超过三十年以后,艾滋病毒继续影响全球数百万人。从一开始,教育部门就在应对疫情中发挥了核心作用,特别是通过提供以学校为基础的艾滋病教育,此话题也一直备受争议。2013年世界艾滋病日之际,联合国教科文组织将发布一个新的出版物--制定艾滋病教育课程,指出了教育部门的职责和艾滋病教育方面的概述。同时也表明了主要的经验教训。由于教科文组织工作人员的亲身经历和以及重要的思想家和实践者在这一领域的贡献,这本书得以探讨新出现的挑战和需要,以达到关于艾滋病毒与艾滋病的国际商定目标。最后,该出版物为教育部门对于预防新感染,治疗和护理,减少羞辱和歧视提出了前进的方向。

今天的年轻人

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Young People Today. Time to Act Now

Empowering young people to exercise their rights to education, health and citizenship

On 6-7 December 2013, education and health ministers from 21 countries in Eastern and Southern Africa will gather in Cape Town, South Africa, to agree on a political commitment on the need for sexuality education and sexual and reproductive health services in the region. These recommendations have the potential to bring about critical improvements in the education, wellbeing and life chances of millions of young people as well as the development of the region as a whole.

This ministerial meeting will be a defining moment for the HIV epidemic, for young women and a turning point in the history of how adolescents and young people are empowered to exercise their rights to education, health and citizenship.

With all the evidence pointing to the benefits that comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services can provide in a rapidly changing society, why is it so vital that the region’s health and education ministers make this commitment in December?

A recent report on the region, Young People Today. Time To Act Now, shows that while there have been encouraging gains in terms of HIV in this region – 6,3 million people are on treatment and far larger numbers of people are living longer and healthier lives - there are still 50 new HIV infections every hour among young people, with the majority occurring among young women. Less than 60% of young people in the region still don’t know basic facts on preventing HIV infection. As well as HIV, young people face many other sexual and reproductive health issues particularly early and unintended pregnancies and maternal deaths.

Addressing these issues requires bold action from ministries of health and education with support from a range of partners. The delivery of CSE from primary school onwards, by trained teachers, and access to SRH services are key components of an effective response for young people.

Ministries, civil society organisations including youth organisations and partners have been holding meetings at country level to review the evidence and provide input to the content of the ministerial commitment. UNESCO, with its partners, is committed to making sure adolescents and young people have what it takes to lead healthier and more informed lives.  

 

 

简讯

  • 本期电子通突出了从众多计划和活动中精选的一部分,为庆祝艾滋病日,这些都得到教科文组织地区和国别办事处的支持。

     以往期刊

联合国艾滋病规划署(UNAIDS)2013年报告

自2001年来,新感染艾滋病比率降了33%

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More about UNAIDS Report 2013

In 2012, an estimated:

  • 35.3 million people were living with HIV.
  • 2.3 million people became newly infected with HIV, down from 3.4 million in 2001.
  • New HIV infections among children have declined by 52% since 2001.
  • AIDS-related deaths have fallen by 30% since the peak in 2005. 

UNAIDS reports that in 26 countries new HIV infections among adults and adolescents have decreased by 50% or more since 2001. However, other countries are not on track to achieve the target of halving sexual transmission by 2015, and recent surveys in some countries in sub-Saharan Africa are revealing a decrease in safer sexual behaviours. To achieve the sexual transmission target will therefore require prevention efforts to be intensified. 

Inadequate access to comprehensive sexuality education, youth-friendly HIV and sexual and reproductive health services, as well as sexual violence against young women and girls are undermining efforts to protect young people from acquiring HIV. While knowledge levels remain low among young people (15–24 years) in sub-Saharan Africa (36% for young men and 28% for young women), the percentage demonstrating comprehensive and accurate understanding of HIV rose by five percentage points for men and by three for women from 2002 to 2011.  Full report.

视频

“发生在我身上”

2013年世界艾滋病日前夕,联合国教科文组织11月28日在巴黎放映短片11月28日“发生在我身上”。这部短片是由联合国教科文组织资助的,由 Chris Ihidero 导演;他是一个年轻的尼日利亚电影导演。

这部短片基于一个真实的故事拍摄,从尼日利亚导演的角度来着眼于描述年轻人感染艾滋病毒的情况。该短片利用了被称为“诺莱坞”尼日利亚的电影产业知识和风格。

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About the Film

Nollywood films are frequently characterized by ultra-low budget and informal distribution, such as via street vendors or on-line streaming, which enable views by large audiences. 

By supporting this film, UNESCO aims to increase HIV awareness and prevention, particularly among young people in Nigeria. 10% of the people living with HIV in the world are in Nigeria, of which 23% are under the age of 24 years. 

By launching this movie in Paris, UNESCO provides a rare opportunity to release a Nollywood film outside of Nigeria and West Africa and highlight the use of culturally appropriate approaches to HIV education, as the content and approach are specifically tailored to a young Nigerian audience. The film was designed to initiate discussion and enable young people to debate the issues in a franc and open fashion in their community. This gives European audiences a unique lens to view one application of culturally adapted approaches to education. 

Within UNESCO, Culture is understood in its broadest definition, on the basis of the 1982 Mexico Declaration. Culture is not only the arts and creativity, but also modes of life, traditions, beliefs, perceptions of health, disease and death, family structures, gender relations, languages and means of communication, value systems and ways of living together. 

We invite you to view the trailer. The film will be available online after its launch on the 28 November 2013