Bilingual Literacy for Life
Country Profile: Mexico
112,336,538 (2010 census)
Spanish and 364 Indigenous Language Variants e.g.: Nahuatl de la Huasteca, Náhuatl de la Sierra Negra, Maya, Mixteco, Zapoteco, Tseltal, Tsotsil, Otomí
|Total Expenditure on Education as % of GNP|
|Primary School Net Enrolment/Attendance|
|Total Youth Literacy Rate (15-24 years)|
|Adult Literacy Rate (15 years and over, 1995-2004)|
|Programme Title||Bilingual Literacy for Life (BLL) / MEVyT Indígena Bilingüe (MIB)|
|Implementing Organization||The National Institute for Adult Education (INEA)|
|Language of Instruction||Spanish and indigenous languages (bilingual)|
|Funding||The Federal Government (through the Ministry of Education and the National Commission for Development of Indigenous Populations – CDI)|
|Programme Partners||The Federal Government of Mexico (through the Ministry of Education), State Adult Education Institutions (IEEAs), NGOs, Local governments and professional institutes (see below under Institutional Partnerships)|
|Date of Inception||2007 (ongoing)|
Context and background
In recent years, Mexico – one of the most populous, ethnically diverse and economically advanced countries in Latin America – has made significant progress in promoting access to basic education for all through increased public funding of education and the implementation of various educational programmes. A recent study noted that “since the 1980s, public spending on education has been steadily increasing in absolute and relative terms [and] represented about 26% of the federal budget in 1999, up from about 12% in 1983”. Universal access to basic education has also been promoted through the institutionalisation of various educational policies and programmes such as the promulgation of the universal education law (which guarantees every child aged 6 to 15 years access to primary and junior secondary education), the OPORTUNIDADES (opportunities) programme which provides financial assistance to school children from poor families); the Telesecundaria (which promotes distance learning through the use of multi-media technologies at secondary school level) and the Educational Model for Life and Work (Modelo Educación para la Vida y el Trabajo – MEVyT), which provides basic education to youths and adults.
As a result of these proactive measures, Mexico’s educational system has expanded rapidly at all levels, the most significant being the expansive growth in the net student enrolment rates across the entire formal educational system. According to government reports, school enrolment rates increased more than eightfold from 3.25 million students in 1950 to 28.2 million in 2000, of which 81% were enrolled in basic education. By 2006, the net primary and secondary school enrolment rates had risen to 98% and 77%, respectively. The primary school completion rate also increased from 74% during the 1993–94 school year to 83% by 1997–98 and to 87% by 2000–2001. As a result, the percentage of people with 9th grade education (i.e. basic education) rose from just 9% in 1970 to 41.4% in 1998. Overall, the 2010 national census established that Mexico had achieved near-universal primary school net enrolment and youth literacy rates while adult literacy rates had improved significantly (see above).
Despite the impressive progress in promoting access to basic education for all, Mexico’s education system continues to be plagued by major challenges such as the lack of basic learning resources, shortages of qualified teachers and the lack of gender equity with regard to access to education. These challenges, which are more acute in rural than in urban areas and are exacerbated by the high levels of poverty among rural families and the predominant use of Spanish as the language of instruction, have created significant barriers which preclude the meaningful participation of indigenous peoples in the public education system. As a result, school enrolment, retention and achievement rates are particularly low in rural areas and, more specifically, among indigenous people. According to recent studies, indigenous Mexicans have an average of 4.6 schooling years compared to a mean of 7.9 years among non-indigenous people. The 2010 national census established that the illiteracy rate for indigenous people was about 27.2% while the national average was 5.4%. Illiteracy rates are substantially higher among indigenous women (about 40%), due in part to entrenched cultural practices which often put the girl child at a disadvantage including less parental support to access education. At a local level, literacy rates in the more developed areas such as Mexico City and Nuevo León exceeded 95% as of 2005 to 2008 but were around 75% in the less developed (and mainly indigenous) states such as Chiapas, Guerrero and Oaxaca during the same period. Overall, one third of the indigenous population is considered to be functionally illiterate.
Hence, in an effort to address these challenges and disparities, and in particular to create quality and sustainable learning opportunities for the traditionally disadvantaged indigenous communities, the federal government (through The National Institute for Adult Education – INEA) initiated the Bilingual Literacy for Life Programme (BLLP) / MEVyT Indígena Bilingüe (MIB) in 2007.
INEA: A brief history of its origins and core mandate
The National Institute for Adult Education (INEA) was established in 1981 as the federal agency in charge of non-formal education – including literacy and basic adult education – in the country. Since then, INEA has developed and implemented various educational programmes – including Plazas comunitarias (Virtual Community Centres), and life skills training programmes for youths and adults. The main objectives of these programmes, which are part of the comprehensive MEVyT programme, were to create an alternative and sustainable route for disadvantaged population groups such as women / girls, indigenous peoples and ethnic minorities, to gaining access to basic education; improve levels of literacy rates in the country; address the specific learning and livelihood needs of various ethnic groups and promote national socio-economic development. Accordingly, people who participate and graduate from INEA programmes are provided with recognised certificates which are equivalent to those provided to learners who follow the formal educational system. In a nutshell, INEA was instituted and is motivated to continue providing a wide range of non-formal educational programmes because the federal government believes that education is a basic human right which should not be denied to any citizen and also one which affords participants the opportunity to appropriate knowledge and skills necessary for both personal and national development. The Bilingual Literacy for Life Programme (BLLP) / MEVyT Indígena Bilingüe (MIB) is indeed one such programme that aims to achieve these integrated goals.
The Bilingual Literacy for Life Programme (BLLP) / MEVyT Indígena Bilingüe (MIB)
The BLLP is an integrated and bilingual non-formal educational (basic literacy and life skills training) programme which primarily targets non-literate and semi-literate people (aged 15 years and above) from socio-economically disadvantaged indigenous communities within Mexico. The programme – which is conducted in Spanish and in local indigenous languages – particularly targets women and out-of-school girls (to date, women have constituted about 92% of the total of programme participants) not only because they constitute a social group that is highly disadvantaged within indigenous communities but also because a majority of indigenous women have, traditionally, failed to effectively benefit from the formal education system. This is due to the fact that most parents prefer to educate boys, as one female programme participant testified: “My father did not want us to study. He told us that as women we would not work so it would be useless”. As such, more than 65% of the illiterate indigenous population are women and are therefore in need of targeted educational interventions.
The programme is currently being implemented in 15 federal states (comprising of 2,223 localities in 263 municipalities) with the prospect of increasing this to 17 states.
The populations of which consist predominantly of indigenous people. To date, the programme has been implemented in 42 main indigenous languages found in the 15 participating states. The fundamental goal of the BLLP / MIB is to create sustainable learning opportunities for indigenous communities in order to address the challenges that limit their ability to access formal basic education (see above) as well as to facilitate their integration into mainstream Mexican society by enabling them to learn and speak in Spanish which is spoken by about 90% of the national population. It also endeavours to empower and promote sustainable development within indigenous communities. To this end, the programme provides learners with literacy and contextually relevant life skills training covering a range of themes including:
- basic and functional literacy (in Spanish and indigenous languages);
- livelihood- or income-generating skills training (including practical skills and business management training);
- life skills training / civic education (including: health awareness, nutrition, reproductive health, human rights awareness, gender awareness, conflict management / resolution, citizenship);
- environmental management / natural resource conservation; and
- social / intercultural studies.
The BLLP / MIB curriculum
The bilingual indigenous MEVyT (MIB) programme is based on an integrated, comprehensive and structured curriculum which covers the basic or initial literacy learning level and the middle or functional literacy skills learning level. MIB modules have to take into account the particular linguistic and cultural situations of each ethnic and linguistic regional group, as well as their interests. For this reason, the modules are developed differently by teams located within the State institutes.
As depicted in the picture below, the initial level of the bilingual indigenous MEVyT programme with Spanish as a Second Language (MIBES) has five learning modules (MIBES 1–5) while the middle level has seven learning modules – two specifically for indigenous learners (MIBES 6–7) and five for MEVyT learners in Spanish – but with some activities in indigenous languages. It takes learners an average of 18 months to complete initial level, and 6 to 10 months to complete middle level.
Each module of the integrated curriculum is intended to equip learners with particular literacy and life skills which will enable them to advance to a higher learning level where the previous skills are reinforced. The modules are built as follows:
- MIBES 1 (I start reading and writing in my own language) – the module provides literacy training in the learners’ mother tongue. The module employs brief and easily comprehensible texts covering themes relating to the learners’ everyday experiences such as social life, environment and culture.
- MIBES 2 (Let’s speak Spanish) – this module introduces learners to Spanish as a second language, through communication in everyday situations. The teaching-learning approach at this level is predominantly oral because the primary goal is to develop the learners’ Spanish oral and comprehension skills and thus to enable them use Spanish in different situations.
- MIBES 3 (I read and write in my own language) – this module is also produced in the learners’ mother tongue and takes the approach of MIBES 1 but is intended to enable learners to develop more complex literacy skills and to use these skills to solve everyday problems. In short, the module intends to equip learners with functional literacy skills in their mother tongue.
- MIBES 4 (I start reading and writing in Spanish) – this module is produced in Spanish. It primarily aims to enable learners to read and write texts in Spanish and further develops oral communication skills in Spanish.
- MIBES 5 (I use written language) – this module is bilingual and aims to enable learners to advance their indigenous and Spanish functional literacy skills.
- MIBES 6 – (Numbers and calculation) – this module, is part of the MIB middle level and addresses necessary aspects of mathematics in primary education, based on both traditional indigenous and western mathematics.
- MIBES 7 (I read and write my mother tongue) – this module is written in Spanish and in indigenous languages and is addressed to facilitators for developing their own skills in reading and writing in their mother tongue. It intends to increase language awareness of teaching staff, in particular with regard to grammar, spelling and use of their mother tongue. The module also works for young and adult learners studying the advanced level of MIB in order to keep them reading and writing in their mother tongue.
It must, however, be noted and emphasised that this integrated curriculum only acts as a guide for field technical teams and facilitators because the specific themes covered and learning activities undertaken in each module have to be adapted to suit the participating group’s mother tongue as well as their specific needs and interests. To achieve this, INEA works closely with the communities and local state institutes in order to integrate their specific and unique suggestions into the modules.
Aims and objectives
In addition to the fundamental goals of the programme highlighted above, the BLLP / MIB also endeavours to:
- raise literacy levels among indigenous peoples through the creation of sustainable bilingual educational opportunities that address their specific learning needs;
- equip learners with bilingual functional literacy skills that are necessary in solving everyday problems,
- promote equal access to quality basic and life skills education (i.e. to reduce regional, gender and ethnic disparities with regard to access to education);
- nurture a culture of lifelong learning among indigenous peoples;
- empower indigenous peoples to be self-reliant and to improve their living standards by enabling them to acquire practical and relevant life skills;
- facilitate the integration of indigenous peoples into mainstream Mexican society through the learning of Spanish as a second language;
- combat the socio-economic marginalisation of indigenous peoples;
- promote development in indigenous communities; and
- empower indigenous peoples to value and preserve their culture and cultural identity.
Programme Implementation: Approaches and methodologies
The learning modules have been developed and provided to the indigenous population by the principal partners of the programme:
- INEA Headquarters
- 14 States Institutes for Adult Education
- 3 INEA’s delegations
Instituto Estatal de Educación para los Adultos en Chiapas
Instituto Estatal de Educación para los Adultos en Oaxaca
Instituto Estatal para la Educación de Jóvenes y Adultos de Guerrero
Instituto Estatal de Educación para Adultos en Puebla
Instituto Veracruzano de Educación para Adultos
Instituto Hidalguense de Educación para Adultos
Instituto de Educación para Adultos del Estado de Yucatán
Instituto Chihuahuense de Educación para Adultos
San Luis Potosí
Instituto Estatal de Educación para los Adultos en San Luis Potosí
Instituto Estatal para la Educación de los Adultos en Quintana Roo
Instituto Estatal de Educación para Adultos en Campeche
Instituto Duranguense de Educación para Adultos
Instituto Estatal de Educación para Adultos de Tabasco
Instituto Nayarita de Educación para Adultos
Delegación del INEA en el Estado de México
Delegación del INEA en Querétaro
Delegación del INEA en Michoacán
In order to facilitate the effective and sustainable implementation of the BLLP / MIB, INEA has established functional working partnerships with local communities (through their representatives) and a wide range of NGOs, community-based organisations (CBOs) and specialised federal and state institutes. These include:
- the National Indigenous Languages Institute (INALI);
- the Linguistic Directorate of National Anthropology Institute (INAH);
- Anthropologic Research Institute (IIA – UNAM);
- Philological Research Institute (IIF– UNAM);
- Maya Language Academy in Yucatán;
- Maya Language Academy in Campeche;
- Veracruz Languages Academy;
- Intercultural University of Veracruz;
- Intercultural University of Guerrero;
- Intercultural University of Estado de México;
- Ayuujk Study Center (Oaxaca State);
- Mixe People Services (Oaxaca State);
- State Center of Indigenous Arts, Languages and Literature (CELALI; Chiapas State);
- Center of Study and Development of Indigenous Languages (CEDELIO; Oaxaca State);
- State Center of Culture and Indigenous Languages of Hidalgo (CELCI);
- Nahuatl Language Academy (Hidalgo State);
- Querétaro Autonomous University;
- Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL); and
- Organization of Translators and Interpreters in Indigenous Languages (OTIGLI).
These organisations provide INEA with critical technical support in the design and development of appropriate teaching-learning materials and translation of Spanish texts into various indigenous languages. Such invaluable professional support has not only enabled INEA to tailor the BLLP / MIB according to the particular needs, interests and language-systems of different learning groups but also to implement the programme cost-effectively because some institutions provide their expertise on a no-cost basis. In addition, the institutions also play a critical role in mobilising learners and ordinary community members to support the programme.
Development of teaching-learning materials
INEA has developed various monolingual and bilingual illustrative training / learning materials (including five modules and posters) with technical support from learners’ organisations and institutional partners with expertise in indigenous languages. These illustrative teaching-learning materials (see pictures below) are distributed free of charge to all learners.
As noted above, the themes covered in each module are not uniform across the 15 states because they are informed by and adapted to reflect each group’s specific worldviews, culture, existential realities and linguistic characteristics as well as addressing its needs and aspirations. In addition, INEA has also produced teaching modules for use by programme trainers / facilitators using the same format.
The production and free distribution of these teaching-learning resources not only intends to facilitate the efficient and sustainable implementation of the BLLP / MIB but also to motivate learners and communities to participate in the BLLP / MIB as well as nurturing a culture of lifelong learning (and thus preventing learners from relapsing into illiteracy) by enabling learners to keep and continue to use the materials long after participating in the programme.
Recruitment and training of facilitators
The practical implementation of the BLLP / MIB is heavily dependent on a cohort of locally or community-based volunteer trainers or facilitators. As of 2011, INEA had trained about 5,000 volunteers (72% of whom were women and 28% men) to act as BLLP / MIB promoters and trainers. Most of these have basic education qualifications while a few are high school students and graduates and professionals working with local schools (teachers) and community development organisations. In all cases, however, volunteers are required to be proficient bilingual (Spanish and indigenous language) speakers. The volunteer trainers work under the supervision of an INEA technical team based in each of the 15 participating federal states.
Given that an overwhelming majority of the volunteers have lower educational qualifications and no professional training and practical experience in non-formal educational practices, INEA’s state-based technical teams – with support from INEA’s various specialised institutional partners (see above) – provide them with professional training, in order to ensure the effective and efficient implementation of the BLLP / MIB. The norm includes 72 hours for initial training, and at least 32 hours of permanent training.
The training-of-trainers and mentoring scheme for programme facilitators focus on:
- reinforcement of reading and writing in the mother tongue, since most of the facilitators speak their mother tongue fluently, but do not use it in writing;
- the educative model (MIB) and pedagogy (focusing on non-formal education teaching-learning methods or approaches);
- design and development of appropriate teaching-learning activities mother tongue teaching methodologies;
- Spanish as a second language teaching methodologies; classroom management practices; and
- assessment and evaluation of teaching-learning outcomes.
Once trained, each facilitator is entrusted with teaching a class of between 4 and 15 learners over the two-year duration of the programme. For this, they are paid a monthly stipend of 722 Pesos (US$58). In addition to providing training services, programme facilitators are also required to evaluate the learning processes and outcomes on an on-going basis as well assessing the changing needs and aspirations of the learners in order to assist INEA technical staff to further develop the curriculum to reflect these “new” needs. Facilitators are also required to organise and manage the virtual community centers, to promote the programme within their communities and to recruit new learners.
Recruitment of learners
INEA’s technical field teams and programme facilitators, with support from community leaders, former learners, CBOs and NGOs, are responsible for mobilising and recruiting new learners into the programme. This system is based on the 80 zone coordination offices that are involved in the 15 states.
Potential learners are invited and motivated to enrol by using state, zone or local institutional joint campaigns, local census, door-to-door invitations or linkage with other social programmes, such as Oportunidades (Opportunities) which brings economic benefits to mothers who are responsible for their children’s schooling and their families’ health.
When individuals show an interest in studying, an initial interview is held to find out about their background, interests, level of reading and writing skills, and degree of mono- or bilingualism. This step is very important, as it enables the learner to be placed on the best educational route to encourage learning, in particular literacy skills. Especially motivating for learners is the possibility of being registered on the national accreditation system and database (SASA-I) which has special provisions for the Indigenous Programme. For initial registration a valid identification (ID) is requested, and if the applicant does not have any, technical officers from the micro-region help to obtain it.
Teaching-learning approaches and methods
BLLP / MIB classes (or study circles) are conducted by facilitators but in some instances and often in response to learners’ requests, facilitators also conduct home visits in order to provide learners or groups of learners with specialised or face-to-face assistance. Programme study timetables are flexible as they are often arrived at after consulting the learners. In this way, learners have the opportunity to choose the times which are best suited to their situations. For instance, during the agricultural season, classes can be conducted in the late afternoon after learners have tended to their fields while in the off-season, classes are often conducted mid-day.
Similarly, since each indigenous language has its own linguistic structure and characteristics, INEA does not prescribe the use of a unique method of literacy training across all the states. Nonetheless, facilitators are encouraged to use a variety of learner-centred (participatory) teaching-learning methods such as games, dialogues, formal activities and group discussions which are inspired by the “meaningful word-generating discussion” and the “meaningful topic-generating discussion” principles developed by Paulo Freire. Through this approach, the learners’ literacy and life skills are nurtured by using their local environment and relevant teaching-learning aids as the basis of learning and thus for developing their literacy skills. While learners develop their oral and written language, they also acquire life skills which enable them to cope with and improve their situations.
Programme impact and challenges
Monitoring and evaluation
The impact of the BLLP / MIB, including student learning outcomes, is closely monitored, assessed and evaluated on an on-going basis by INEA’s technical field teams, programme facilitators and learners themselves through a combination of class observations, final examinations at the end of each module and student self-evaluation. In order to facilitate student self-evaluation, for example, INEA has developed standardised instruments such as questionnaires which guide learners through the process of assessing not only their learning progress and achievements but also the teaching methods and the overall impact of the programme on their lives. Additionally, external professionals are also engaged by INEA on an annual basis to undertake summative evaluations of both the student learning outcomes and the impact of the programme on literacy and community development. To date, several external evaluations have been undertaken by various experts (see sources below). Together, these programme evaluation and assessment processes feed into the national information system, the Automated System for Monitoring and Assessment (SASA-I), “which aims to collect reliable data on the progress of the adults who enter the INEA programmes” with a view of, among other things, facilitating the certification or accreditation of learners and future planning.
As established by several evaluation studies, the BLLP / MIB has created alternative and viable learning opportunities for indigenous peoples. In so doing, the programme has played (and continues to play) a critical role in combating the scourge of illiteracy and cultivating a culture of learning among indigenous peoples as well as in promoting social empowerment, economic development and poverty alleviation within indigenous communities. More specifically, the major impacts of the programme include:
- creation of educational opportunities: since its inception in 2007, the BLLP / MIB has created an alternative route for about 90,474 indigenous learners (92% of whom have been women) in gaining access to basic literacy and life skills training. As such, the programme is making a major contribution to improving levels of literacy among indigenous peoples as well as in promoting the development of literate environments in their communities;
- social Integration: being a bilingual programme, the BLLP / MIB also enables learners to engage more equitably with mainstream Mexican society by enabling them to read, write and speak in Spanish;
- social empowerment and community development: the BLLP / MIB has been a major vehicle for empowering traditionally disadvantaged and marginalised indigenous communities. This is particularly the case for women who are often disadvantaged both within their local communities and at the national level. Hence, by equipping such groups with functional skills, the BLLP / MIB empowers them to be self-reliant, to exercise their rights and to participate in the development of their communities, all of which enhances their self-esteem, confidence and living standards. The programme has also empowered parents to proactively participate in the education of their children, as one participant testified: “(…) I have two children and now I can help them with homework at school. So this way, they will not feel embarrassed because of their mom”. In addition, the programme has also empowered adults to be less dependent on others in undertaking everyday activities such as writing and reading letters: “[...] since I was a child my parents would ask me to take care of the cows in the countryside, so there I grew up and I couldn’t go to the school. [...] When I started (to learn), I didn’t know even how to grab the pencil, letters were very difficult to me but little by little I could do it. I now know how to write my name well, and to sign, I know the numbers. [...] I like to read every kind of paper that I reach or somebody gives me. I like to know what it says”.
- The BLLP / MIB has been a major catalyst in the development of indigenous languages which, in turn, has improved literacy rates among indigenous peoples. This phenomenon is exemplified by the formation of 51 small technical groups which are currently engaged in the development of relevant teaching-learning materials in indigenous languages within the 15 participating states and two others. Given that most indigenous languages had only existed in oral form, it can be concluded that the institutionalisation of the BLLP / MIB has been a major force that has promoted the development of indigenous languages in written form.
In light of this, INEA was awarded the 2011 UNESCO King Sejong Literacy Prize for this programme (more information is available at: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/education-building-blocks/literacy/literacy-prizes/2011/).
Despite its major contributions towards the development of indigenous communities as noted, the BLLP / MIB is also encumbered by numerous challenges. These include:
- Inadequate support from the government: notwithstanding the government’s public statements regarding the need to facilitate development in indigenous communities in order to enable them to catch up with the rest of Mexican society, governmental support in this endeavour has generally been inadequate. Thus, within the education sector, the State has also been rather lethargic in funding programmes such as the BLLP / MIB that aim to create sustainable educational opportunities for the traditionally disadvantaged communities. Therefore the implementation of the BLLP / MIB is encumbered by the lack of financial and human resources due to limited State support;
- The lack of adequate funding has also prevented INEA from hiring highly qualified facilitators; as these demand higher remuneration; as well as from undertaking intensive research on indigenous languages. This has, in turn, affected the quality of training provided to learners and INEA’s capacity to extend the programme to other States.
- Since indigenous languages continue to be marginalised at the national level, there is little incentive for people to participate in the programme (e.g. proficiency in one or several indigenous languages does not enhance one’s employment prospects because Spanish continues to be the only useful language).
- Although indigenous peoples’ perceptions on modern education are changing, some people still place little value on education and therefore prefer to continue leading their ‘traditional’ lives. As such, BLLP / MIB field practitioners have often found it difficult to mobilise community members (especially men) to participate in the programme and most importantly, to continue learning once enrolled in the programme.
- Most learners face challenges in mastering Spanish and therefore cannot proceed beyond MIBES 1.
Over the past few years of implementing the BLLP, several critical lessons have been learnt. These include:
- The promotion of bilingual educational programmes expands the educational opportunities available to minority groups and thus enables the State to achieve the central goals of education for all (EFA).
- Non-formal educational programmes act as a critical catalyst for rural development and social empowerment.
- To be viable and sustainable, bilingual educational programmes must be adapted not only to the needs of the communities concerned but also to the goals and vision of the entire state.
- The use of learners’ respective mother tongues as well as relating learning practices and themes to their culture and everyday experiences plays a critical role in enhancing indigenous peoples’ ability to grasp more complex literacy skills. With regard to the former, a BLLP / MIB beneficiary testified that, “I am a peasant from Cuilapan Guerrero, I like a lot INEA`s programme, literacy in mother tongue because I understand more my facilitator’s explanation. Besides, I understand other things more than before about my own Nahuatl language”. As such, intensive research and formalisation of local languages is a critical prerequisite for the success and sustainability of bilingual educational programmes.
- The proactive involvement of critical stakeholders involved in indigenous issues is central to the success and sustainability of bilingual educational programmes.
- Bilingual educational programmes are a critical vehicle for cultural preservation as well as for social mobilisation, integration and cohesion within multi-ethnic societies,
- Engaging locals as programme promoters and facilitators enhances the potential success of bilingual non-formal educational programmes not only because local facilitators can effectively communicate with learners but also because they motivate their family and friends to aspire to achieve similar levels of educational success,
- Formal accreditation of learning motivates learners to continue learning.
The long-term sustainability of the BLLP / MIB hinges on several critical factors including:
- The active involvement of a wide range of stakeholders. More specifically, the Federal Government has made practical commitments to fund basic education programmes, particularly those that address the needs of the traditionally disadvantaged population groups such as indigenous communities. In light of this, the federal government is currently contributing more than 50% of the US$6.8 million annual budget of the BLLP. In addition, INEA has also nurtured strong institutional networks with several specialised and interested stakeholders (see above) who can be trusted to promote the programme on a long-term basis.
- INEA has developed and adopted an integrated curriculum that specifically addresses participants’ basic and multiple existential needs. As result, the programme continues to be attractive to youth and adult learners.
- American Institute for Research for Planning and Evaluation Services (US Department of Education): Education in Mexico. 1998
- Salas Garza, Edmundo: Mexico : Basic Education Development Project. Washington D.C., World Bank, 1998
- US Library of Congress: Mexico : Education
- World Education News and Reviews: Education in Mexico.
- The Educational Model for Life and Work (Modelo Educación para la Vida y el Trabajo – MEVyT
- Carmen, Campero (et., al): Mexico: Analysing the International Adult Literacy Benchmarks in our context
- Schmelkes, Sylvia (2009). Alfabetización de jóvenes y adultos indígenas en México. In Luis Enrique López and Ulrike Hanemann (eds), Alfabetización y multiculturalidad. Miradas desde América Latina. Hamburg: UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning and Guatemala: Programa de Apoyo a la Calidad Educativa de la Cooperación Técnica Alemana en Guatemala (PACE-GTZ)
- Instituto Nacional para la Educación de los Adultos (INEA) (2007). Programa de Educación para la Vida y el Trabajo (PEVyT). Subcomponente 1.4: Educación Intercultural Bilingüe. Plan de Desarrollo para la Atención al Rezago Educativo en la Población Indígena. Documento de trabajo para Banco Mundial. México
- INEA-CAMPECHE (2007). Programa de alfabetización MEVyT-IB (MIB), México
- Mendoza Ortega, Sara Elena (2008). Un quehacer para aprender: La alfabetización con personas jóvenes y adultas indígenas. In Decisio. Saberes para la acción en educación de adultos 1(21). Pátzcuaro, Michoacán, México: Centro de Cooperación Regional para la Educación de Adultos en América Latina y el Caribe, CREFAL
- Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos (OEI) (2006). Plan Iberoamericano de Alfabetización y Educación Básica de Personas Jóvenes y Adultas 2007–2015. [s.l.] Informes de Países.
- INEA (2007). Prueba piloto de los módulos: MIBES 1 Empiezo a leer y escribir en mi lengua y MIBES 2 Hablemos español. Quintana Roo - Yucatán, México: Campeche (Pilot testing of the modules: 1 MIBES Begin to read and write in my language and MIBES 2 Speak Spanish. Quintana Roo - Yucatan, Mexico: Campeche).
- Evaluación de Consistencia y Resultados del Programa de Atención a la demanda de Educación Para Adultos a través del Modelo de Educación para la Vida y el Trabajo (2008). Sede México: Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales FLACSO, (External evaluation over Operation Rules)
- Evaluación para el seguimiento a las recomendaciones. Informe final del diseño y desarrollo para 2008 del Sistema de seguimiento y evaluación de los beneficios del MEVyT y evaluación del perfil, reclutamiento, capacitación y remuneración de los asesores que aplican el MEVyT (Diciembre 2008). México: Ahumada Lobo y Asociados, (Final report: Design and Development for 2008 System of Monitoring and Evaluation of Benefits and Evaluation Profile MEVyT. Recruitment, training and remuneration of facilitators)
Ms Celia Solís Sánchez
Ms Carmen Díaz González
Subdirección de Contenidos Diversificados
Last update: 8 September 2011