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5. The management of staff
5.2 Human relations in personnel administration
5.3 Career opportunities
5.4 The job description
5.5 Recruiting staff
5.6 Supervising staff
5.7 Training and developing staff
5.8 Appraisal of staff
5.9 Technical and junior staff
5.10 Human problems in information work
5.11 Participatory management
5.12 Workers' councils and trade unions
5.1 Personnel administration
Personnel administration in libraries
By Helen HOWARD
A number of key issues in library personnel administration in the Canadian context are covered including staffing, duties, human resources planning, job analysis, job evaluation, performance appraisal, laws against discrimination, staff training and development, and quality of working life.
L'auteur passe en revue les principaux aspects de la gestion du personnel de bibliothèque en milieu canadien: dotation en personnel, tâches professionnelles, planification des ressources humaines, analyse des emplois, évaluation des postes appréciation du rendement, lois contre la discrimination, formation du personnel, qualité de vie au travail.
Personnel administration can be defined as "the recruitment, selection, development, utilization of, and accomodation to human resources by organizations."1 The human resources of an organization consist of all individuals engaged in any of the organization's activities. Libraries employ not only large numbers of people, but also very diverse kinds of people. It is not unusual for sixty to eighty percent of a library's budget to be devoted to salaries. Thus effective personnel administration is critical to a library's achieving its goals and objectives. In times of extreme financial constraint, the very survival of a library may be highly dependent upon the quality of personnel administration.
This paper has been organized around some of the key issues in library personnel administration in the Canadian context. The intent in the space available is to provide a flavour of the issues and challenges and to stimulate librarians to examine their own personnel policies and practices, management style, working conditions etc. with a view to providing an improved level of personnel administration.
Personnel administration as practiced in libraries is of a very uneven nature. Size is often a controlling factor with the result that personnel officers or departments tend to be found only in medium and large-size libraries. Personnel functions for staff in special libraries, school libraries, and small academic libraries may be carried out by the personnel (now often termed "human resource") offices of the parent organization. However, personnel administration is inherent in all organizations. It is an integral part of every administrative, managerial, and supervisory position. Techniques may help in specific instances, but the important consideration is the systematic overall approach to managing human resources.
Martin believes libraries have tended to rely on rather primitive methods of personnel administration and have lacked sophistication in the handling of newer techniques. "This has in turn led to a kind of applied-faddism as one tool after another has been used as the key to salvation... and too much has been expected of them."2 This paper is approached with a general systems view of organizations and the application of contemporary behavioral science theory, research, and practice.
The impact of financial constraint, a competitive job market, new technologies, rapid change in the environment, more involvement of staff in decision making, new legislation, and an increased demand for accountability have increased the importance of the effective use of human resources.
There is some evidence that greater emphasis is being placed on improved personnel administration. For example, in December 1973 The Systems and Procedures Exchange Center of the Association of Research Libraries Office of University Library Management Studies reported that 30 ARL libraries had appointed or were planning to appoint personnel officers. By November 1977 some 80 ARL libraries had personnel officers.3 Also, the amount of literature on specific aspects of library personnel administration as well as on the broad topic has increased in the last five years. This is reflected in the variety of sources used as background for this paper.
A number of factors have been part of an increased and specialized attention to personnel administration. These include an increase in the size and complexity of libraries, a growing number of governmental regulations and guidelines; a need for orientation, career counseling, training, and performance appraisal; unionization; attempts to implement a system involving job analysis and evaluation which involve detailed task analysis; new selection practices including the use of search committees; more sophisticated systems for promotion and tenure decisions; changing types and quantity of work to be done; changing ratios of professional to other staff; and general concern about the quality of working life. A selection of these topics which appear to be key issues for personnel administration and for professionals in the 1980's is reviewed in the remainder of this paper.
"Staffing" should be thought of as an integrated system which includes all methods of matching skills available with the tasks to be performed, through hiring, placement, promotion, transfer, job restructuring, and training.4 Library staffing patterns have been shifting as a result of changes such as those in technology and especially automation, financial constraints, attempts to utilize staff more effectively, and changing forms of governance.
The staffing of libraries is becoming more differentiated. Enlightened library administrators are recognizing that several kinds of staff are needed and that the tasks each type of staff performs should be appropriate to the jobs for which they were hired. Library staff may be distributed into three groups:
The ALA policy statement, "Library Education and Personnel Utilization" recommends categories of library personnel and levels of training and education appropriate to preparing personnel for these categories:
To meet the goals of library service, both professional and supportive staff are needed in libraries. Thus the library occupation is much broader than that segment of it which is the library profession, but the library profession has responsibility for defining the training and education required for the preparation of personnel who work in libraries at any level, supportive or professional.
Skills other than those of librarianship may also have an important contribution to make to the achievement of superior library service. There should be equal recognition in both the professional and supportive ranks for those individuals whose expertise contributes to the effective performance of the library.6
There is no comprehensive study to show how many librarians, other professionals, library technicians, library assistants, and clerical staff are currently employed in Canadian libraries and what their interrelationships are in the work place. However, some scattered data can be assimilated.
The ratio of professionals to other library staff has varied through the years. For instance, Canadian academic libraries showed a ratio of one professional to 2.85 other staff in 1969.7 The latest data from Statistics Canada for 1978, although not wholly comparable since part-time equivalents are not included, show a ratio of one to slightly more than three.8 Informal sources indicate that currently the ratio is closer to 1:4 in large Canadian university libraries. However, staffing ratios seem to be considerably different in public libraries. A recent survey of Canadian public libraries showed a ratio of 1:1.65 for librarians to other library workers.9
The basic academic qualification for a librarian is an M.L.S. degree from an accredited library school. There is a trend, however, for employers to seek staff with a second masters in a subject area. Priorities of programs and the' nature of work in libraries are changing. Thus a staff establishment which was appropriate in the 1970's needs review. The pressure from funding sources to justify programs and staffing has accelerated this activity and is forcing all administrators to look carefully at who is doing what and who could do what. It appears that fewer individuals are doing professional work than previously and there is a proportionately increasing number of library technicians, library assistants, and clerical staff.
Except in Quebec the library technician programs require two years of post-secondary education with a recommended 40-50 percent of academic courses, and 50-60 percent of technical courses and required field work.10 In Quebec, library technicians are trained mainly in the three-year program "Techniques de la documentation/Document Technology" in the Collèges d'enseignement général et professionnel (CEGEP's). This program, which began to replace in 1975 the former Library Technology Program, prepares the student for work not only in libraries but also in archives, records centres, bookstores, and documentation centres.
Although the first two-year program for library technicians in Canada was launched in 1966 and there are now some twenty-two programs, data are incomplete for the number of graduates and their placement. A survey conducted in 1981 showed that of the 409 graduates reported, the largest number, 122, had found employment in special libraries. Of the remainder, 55 were in academic and public libraries respectively, and nine in non-library jobs but using library skills.11 It appears that the technicians are having considerable success in finding positions, especially in special libraries. Indeed, many businesses and industries which feel that they can not afford or justify the hiring of a librarian, are turning to library technicians to organize their collections and develop services. A serious problem faced by library technicians, however, is that of gaining recognition as a group with specific academic and experiential training. Most large libraries do not have a separate classification for library technicians. Rather they tend to include them in a general category of "library assistants." This is an obvious problem for personnel administrators to tackle.
Library assistant positions are usually - but not always - similar to the "library associate" advocated in the ALA "Library Education and Personnel Utilization" policy. This group of personnel is described as having
supportive responsibilities at high level, normally working within established procedures and techniques, and with some supervision by a professional, but requiring judgment, and subject knowledge such as represented by a full, four-year college education culminating in the/a bachelor's degree.12
The third group of library employees, the clerical staff, needs a knowledge of office practices and a capacity to follow repetitive procedures within specified guidelines.
The issue of what duties should be carried out by professionals and those by other staff is receiving increased attention because of the need to make the most efficient use of staff and also to meet the expectations of young, ambitious professionals. Numerous efforts have been made to distinguish between professional and other tasks. For example, the American Library Association published a list of professional and nonprofessional duties in 1948.13 The Library Association undertook to distinguish professional from nonprofessional duties in 1964 and published a second edition in 1974.14
A different approach - that of applying the techniques of functional job analysis to libraries - was begun in 1969 by the Illinois Task Analysis Project (ILTAP). The objective of Phase I of the project was to provide a realistic description of work actually being done in public, school, special, and academic libraries. This phase identified 1,615 tasks performed by eighteen libraries. The project culminated in phase III with the publication of a synthesis of the preceding phases and a list of library tasks arranged by eight major subsystems and three performance levels - professional, technical, and clerical.15
Most recently, the consultants for Project Progress used as a starting point the Illinois tasks and functional groupings to find out who does what in a selection of public libraries. The task list they developed contained 787 tasks. An analysis of the task survey shows considerable overlap in performance of tasks by various categories of library workers. The researchers state that "We can identify no norms or patterns by which libraries could assess their own task/personnel assignments... Only 9.5 percent of the tasks listed were carried out exclusively by librarians."16 The consultants conclude that task analysis is not a tool that can enable libraries to rationalize and account for their effectiveness in personnel administration. In addition they conclude that "extrapolating 'who should do what' in libraries from 'who is doing what' is neither feasible nor desirable."17 Rather, they recommend that model job descriptions should be developed to provide guidelines for appropriate task assignment within public libraries.
The most recent attempt to identify professional duties has been undertaken by a committee of the Corporation des bibliothécaires professionnels du Québec. They re-worked a list published in 197418 and in April 1982 sent a revised list to the Corporation members for comment. The committee provides a selected list of duties expected to be performed by professionals in four functional areas - administration, collection management, organization and cataloguing of materials, and dissemination of materials - and a fifth section connected with teaching, research, and professional development.
Support staff, as defined earlier, includes graduates of a library technician program and library assistants with a bachelor's degree. Because of the variability of library size and working conditions and the lack of clarification of what constitutes professional work, it is impossible to state the specific duties which should be assigned to support staff. As far as library technicians are concerned, the Canadian Library Association's Guidelines for the Education of Library Technicians does include a list of minimum skills a graduate library technician possesses in both public and technical services procedures.19 The Ontario Association of Library Technicians issued a policy statement in 1977 which identifies a library technician as one who has acquired through a two-year program of study "specialized knowledge of library systems and methods to assist in developing, organizing, and maintaining a collection of library material."20 This document also includes a list of duties in public and technical services.
Library assistants are a diverse group whose duties vary considerably. The main research done on this group is by Mugnier who investigated "library associates" in large public libraries. She found that they not only carried out a wide variety of tasks but also filled jobs which overlapped into the beginning professional level.21
The duties of clerical employees also vary considerably from library to library. Typical duties are the preparation of materials, basic circulation routines, and typing.
Human Resources Planning
Employment planning is an essential part of managing the staffing process. It should be responsive to general environmental conditions with which the library and its parent organization must cope and reflect the organization's goals and objectives. According to French, it includes a skills inventory, an analysis of current and expected vacancies, an analysis of expected expansions or reductions in operating units, and a systematic plan for recruitment and promotion. It is a comprehensive, on-going process which includes, but is broader than, making projections.22
Since most libraries are now subject to severe budget constraints and sometimes a freeze on filling vacancies, human resources planning is more critical than ever. It is also more difficult than ever because of rapid change in the environment, factors such as government regulations and unionization, and the need to create innovative staffing arrangements not only to provide needed services, but also to ensure that librarians continue to develop professionally in spite of being caught in a "zero growth" economic situation.
A major component for effective employment planning is job analysis. Strauss and Sayles state that detailed knowledge is required for every job in an organization in order to know how to recruit and whom to hire, to carry out job evaluation, to design promotional ladders, to set sensible workloads, and to evaluate staff development programs.23 Job analysis is a major undertaking requiring the specialized knowledge of the personnel administrator and a considerable input of other staff time. An alternative means for carrying out job analysis is using the services of consultants. Consultants do have the advantage of experience and expertise and can approach a study objectively. However, they may have little understanding of library work which can result in misinterpretations and/or strained relations with library staff.
Job analysis is a very complex undertaking and often uses a variety of methods. These may include using job descriptions, questionnaires, interviews, observation, and task analysis. Strauss and Sayles state that "job analysis should go beyond simply recording existing job practices: it should also question whether these practices are appropriate."24
Job descriptions or position descriptions are summaries of basic tasks performed on a job. They may contribute significantly to a job analysis study but often they are not updated frequently enough and there may be a big difference between what the job is supposed to consist of and the actual duties carried out by the encumbent.
There is ample literature on creating and using job descriptions and so they will not be treated further here. However, the difference between job descriptions and position classifications should be noted. Position classifications may be referred to as generic descriptions. They group jobs into a number of levels or classes and these are then described to feature gradations of job responsibility, skills required, etc. An example of position classification descriptions are those for general librarian, senior librarian, and principal librarian developed by the Canadian Association of College and University Libraries.25
Job evaluation is the process of determining the relative worth of the various jobs within an organization. There are many methods which may be used to enable management to determine how much one job should pay relative to others. The point system is the most widely used though ranking, job classification, and factor-comparison are also widely used. These methods are well described in personnel texts such as French26 and Strauss and Sayles,27 and are discussed in relation to libraries, for example, by Creth.28
There are many difficult problems related to job analysis and evaluation, not the least of which are human problems. Excellent communication is needed and it is essential that staff understand that it is the jobs which are being analyzed and evaluated and not the individuals performing the jobs.
Performance appraisal may be regarded as "referring to a comparatively formal, systematic program of the evaluation of employee performance, developed to improve the quality of judgment applied to that performance and to insure frequent and timely assessments."29 The importance of an effective appraisal system can not be overemphasized. However, the difficulty of designing such a system, training supervisors, and implementing the system is immense.
The subject has been and continues to be discussed at such length in the personnel administration and library literature that no attempt will be made to cover its various facets here. The student of performance appraisal in libraries would benefit especially from reading Reneker,30 McGregor,31 Rizzo,32 the ARL Spec kit on performance appraisal,33 the Guide issued by the Library Administration and Management Association,34 and either French35 or Strauss and Sayles.36 Suffice it to say that new approaches to performance appraisal rather than being judgmental are oriented toward contributing to organizational goals, opening the lines of communication between supervisors and employees, and developing staff members.
Laws Against Discrimination
Personnel administrators must be familiar with an increasing number of laws and regulations affecting the work force. Among the newest legislation is that dealing specifically with discrimination. The Canadian Human Rights Act, which came into force on March 1, 1978, applies to all federal government departments, agencies, and crown corporations, and to business and industry under federal jurisdiction.37 In areas not under federal jurisdiction protection is given by provincial human rights laws. Each of the ten provinces has its own anti-discrimination laws which are broadly similar to the federal law. The main points of the federal law will be outlined here.
The Canadian Human Rights Act prohibits discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, age, sex, marital status, the fact that a person was convicted for an offence for which a pardon has been issued, and the fact that a person has a physical handicap. The Act also protects the privacy of personal information stored in government files. It ensures that any person may find out if there is personal information on those files, check its accuracy and the use to which it is being put, and request that inaccurate information be corrected.
Section 11 of the Act deals with equal wages:
- It is a discriminatory practice for an employer to establish or maintain differences in wages between male and female employees employed in the same establishment who are performing work of an equal value.
- In assessing the value of work performed by employees employed in the same establishment, the criterion to be applied is the composite of the skill, effort and responsibility required in the performance of the work and the conditions under which the work is performed."
Librarians have particular interest in this section because data continue to indicate that on the average, female librarians' salaries are lower than those for male librarians. A landmark decision was handed down by the Human Rights Commission in December 1980 as a result of a complaint from the Library Science Group of the Public Service Alliance of Canada. They complained that their occupational group, which was composed of more than 66 percent women, was paid less than historical researchers - a predominately male group whose job duties the librarians alleged were of equal value. The Canadian Human Rights Commission concluded that the librarians' complaint was justified and awarded some 470 federal government librarians equalization adjustments ranging from $500 to $2,500 annually, plus back pay of up to $5,900 each. This is the first settlement of a complaint comparing occupational groups whose members perform dissimilar jobs.
In Quebec the Charte des droits et libertés de la personne, which became law in June 1976, spells out fundamental rights and freedoms. It prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, colour, sex, civil status, religion, political convictions, language, ethnic or national origin, or social conditions.39 Another document, Equal Opportunities in Employment. Guide for Interpreting the Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms With Respect to job Offers, Application Forms and Interviews with Candidates40 lists and explains which questions are or are not permissible.
Anti-discriminatory legislation is also embedded in various other taws such as labour codes. These will not be discussed here but one new piece of legislation which may have an impact on personnel practices should be noted. This is Quebec Bill 15, "An Act Respecting the Abolition of Compulsory Retirement and Providing Amendments to Certain Legislation", which was passed in April, 1982. This is the first act of its kind in Canada, but it is likely similar legislation will follow in other jurisdictions. Although one may sympathize with the intent of this legislation, it could be another factor inhibiting the opportunities for younger librarians to advance and achieve more responsibility in senior Positions.
Staff Training and Development
As staffing patterns change, new technologies are introduced, and new societal needs are expressed, library staff have an increased need for opportunities for training and development. Dunlap points out that for libraries faced with staff cuts a greater proportion of time will have to be devoted to basic tasks and this leaves less opportunity for extra programs and for staff movement, such as staff rotation. She argues convincingly for making a special effort to provide opportunities for growth for all staff and believes that as a result they will be more receptive to change because they will not feel threatened.41 Although training is time-consuming and costly, cutting the budget for it is short-sighted in the extreme. On the other hand, staff, especially professionals, have as much obligation to assume responsibility for development and continuing education as management has for encouraging it.
The needs and opportunities for training and development are amply documented in the literature. Creth provides a good overview of the factors to be considered as well as sources of additional information.42
Programs that support the development of the library's human resources are the most rewarding of any activity - for the individual, the library, and the public that the library serves - and they provide the library with an insurance policy on the largest investment it has, its people.43
Quality of Working Life
Staff development encompasses aspects of a "Quality of Working Life" program. This has become an increasingly familiar term that means different things to different people. Explicit in the concept and its application is a system of thought that stresses the humanizing and self-fulfilling potential of work.44 Job design and sociotechnical systems are sub-sets of the key issues in the quality of working life.
Job design represents an approach to designing specific jobs to make them more interesting and rewarding for the individual job holder and more productive for the organization. Sociotechnical systems represents (sic) a more comprehensive approach to designing total work systems as well as individual jobs.45
Martell provides an excellent review of the topic which has been evolving during the seventies but has only recently appeared in the literature of librarianship.46, 47, 48 His view is that "The tendency to look at tasks and jobs rather than organizational roles is a major factor that constrains efforts to develop more effective organization structures for libraries." He acknowledges that the implementation of work system design is very difficult and speculates that "the perceptual and technical skills required to develop and implement contemporary work system design may not yet exist within librarianship."49
Redesigning work is a broad undertaking which requires a holistic approach to change. It is a long and difficult task which challenges the ingenuity of all professionals and, in particular, those directly responsible for personnel administration.
Summary and Conclusion
This paper has covered a selected number of key issues in library personnel administration in the Canadian context. Some topics which are very important, such as unionization, have not been dealt with because it is expected that they will be treated in other papers. The importance of the personnel process has been stressed, including the need for expertise to enable the profession to make good use of technology and research in the behavioral sciences in adapting to change. Library managers are faced with the difficult problem of improving the effectiveness of their staffs while at the same time providing an opportunity for staff development in times of zero growth or retrenchment. There is a real danger of unfulfilled expectations leading to lowered morale and its attendant problems. Some suggestions have been made for improved personnel practices. However, there is no "one right way." Each library must devise its own strategy for maximizing the potential of its human resources.
1. Wendell L. French, The Personnel Management Process: Human Resources Administration and Development. 4th ed. (Boston, Houghton-Mifflin, 1978), p. 3.
2. Murray S. Martin, Issues in Personnel Management in Academic Libraries (Greenwich. Conn., JAI Press, 1981), p. 4.
3. Association of Research Libraries. Systems and Procedures Exchange Center, The Changing Role of Personnel Officers (Washington, D.C., 1978), p. 1.
4. Margaret Myers, «Staffing Patterns in Libraries» In Sheila Creth and Frederick Duda, Personnel Administration in Libraries (New York, Neal-Schuman, 1981), p. 33.
5. Canadian Association of College and University Libraries. Second University Library Standards Committee, Trends for the Seventies: Guidelines for Canadian University Libraries (Montreal and Toronto, 1971), p. 26.
6. American Library Association, «Library Education and Personnel Utilization: a Statement of Policy Adopted by the Council of the ALA, June 30, 1970» (Chicago, ALA, 1970), p. 1.
7. «Salary and Budget Survey», CACUL Newsletter, vol. 2, no. 1 (January 1969), p. 50.
8. Statistics Canada. Education, Science and Culture Division, University and Colleges in Canada 1978-79 (Ottawa, Ministry of Supply, 1981), p. 40.
9. Project Progress: a Study of Canadian Public Libraries, prepared for the Canadian Library Association and its division The Canadian Association of Public Libraries by Urban Dimensions Group, Inc., Toronto, Canada (Ottawa, Canadian Library Association, 1981). p. 37.
10. Jean Weihs, «Survey of Library Technician Programs in Canada,» Canadian Library journal, Vol. 36, no. 6 (December 1979), pp. 354-63, 365-8.
11. Jean Weihs, «Committee Polls Technician Programs Across Canada in 1981,» Feliciter, vol. 28, no. 4 (April 1982), pp. 10-11.
12. American Library Association, «Library Education and Personnel Utilization.» p. 2.
13. American Library Association. Board on Personnel Administration, Professional and Non-Professional Duties in Libraries (Chicago, ALA, 1948).
14. Library Association Research and Development Committee. Professional and Non-Professional Duties in Libraries. 2nd ed. (London, Library Association, 1974).
15. Meryl Ricking and Robert E. Booth, Personnel Utilization in Libraries: a Systems Approach (Chicago, ALA, 1974).
16. Project Progress, pp. 72-73.
17. Ibid., p. 75.
18. Corporation des bibliothécaires professionnels du Québec, «Liste des tâches professionnelles du bibliothécaire,» Argus, Vol. 3, no. 6 (novembre-décembre 1974), pp. 70-73.
19. Canadian Library Association. Committee on Library Technicians (Role and Education), Guidelines for the Education of Library Technicians (Ottawa, CLA, 1981).
20. Ontario Association of Library Technicians. Standards Committee, «Statement of the Standards Committee» (Toronto, 1977), p. 1.
21. Charlotte Mugnier, Paraprofessionals and the Professional job Structure (Chicago, ALA, 1980).
22. French, p. 199.
23. George Strauss and Leonard Sayles, Personnel: the Human Problems of Management. 4th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall, 1980), p. 344.
24. Ibid., p. 346.
25. Canadian Association of College and University Libraries, Positions Classification and Principles of Academic Status in Canadian University Libraries (Ottawa, Canadian Library Association, 1969).
26. French, pp. 391-6.
27. Strauss and Sayles, pp. 565-73.
28. Sheila Creth, «Personnel Planning and Utilization» In Sheila Creth and Frederick Duda, Personnel Administration in Libraries (New York, Neal-Schuman, 1981), pp. 73-86.
29. Maxime Reneker, «Performance Appraisal in Libraries: Purposes and Techniques» In Sheila Creth and Frederick Duda, Personnel Administration in Libraries (New York, Neal Schuman, 1981), p. 228.
30. Ibid., pp. 227-89.
31. Douglas McGregor, «An Uneasy Look at Performance Appraisal,» Harvard Business Review, Vol. 35, no. 3 (May-June 1957), pp. 89-94.
32. John R. Rizzo, Management for Librarians: Fundamentals and Issues (Westport, Conn., Greenwood Press, 1980), pp. 226-57.
33. Association for Research Libraries. Systems and Procedures Exchange Center, Performance Appraisal (Washington, D.C., 1978). (Spec kit 53).
34. American Library Association. Library Administration and Management Association. Personnel Administration Section, Personnel Performance Appraisal - a Guide for Libraries (Chicago, ALA, 1979).
35. French, pp. 299-334.
36. Strauss and Sayles, pp. 519-37.
37. Canada. Laws, statutes, etc., Canadian Human Rights Act (Ottawa, July 1977).
38. Ibid., p. 4.
39. Quebec. Laws, statutes, etc. Charte des droits et libertés de la personne, C-12 (with amendments) Quebec, Editeur officiel, 1981.
40. Québec. Commission des droits de la personne du Québec, Equal Opportunities in Employment: Guide for Interpreting the Charter of Human Rights and Freedom With Respect to Job Offers, Application Forms and Interviews With Candidates (Quebec. 1977).
41. Connie Dunlap, «New Objectives for Library Management» In Chih-Chih Chen, Library Management Without Bias (Greenwich, Conn., JAI Press, 1980), pp. 169-73.
42. Sheila Creth, «Staff Development and Continuing Education» In Sheila Creth and Frederick Duda, Personnel Administration in Libraries (New York, Neal Schuman, 1981), pp. 189-225.
43. Ibid., p. 222.
4-4. Charles Martell, «Improving the Effectiveness of Libraries Through Improvements in the Quality of Working Life» College and Research Libraries, vol. 42, no. 5 (September 1981), p. 435.
45. Labour Canada. Quality of Working Life Unit, Quality of Working Life: Job Design and Sociotechnical Systems (Ottawa, Minister of Supply and Services, 1980), p. 1.
46. Klaus Musmann, «Socio-Technical Theory and job Design in Libraries,» College and Research Libraries, vol. 30, no. 1 (January 1978), pp. 20-28.
47. Thomas W. Shaughnessy, «Technology and job Design in Libraries: A Sociotechnical Systems Approach», Journal of Academic Librarianship, vol. 3, no. 5 (November 1977), pp. 269-72.
48. Thomas W. Shaughnessy, «Redesigning Library jobs» Journal of the American Society for Information Science, vol. 29, no. 4, July 1978), pp. 187-90.
49. Martell, p. 441.
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