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Training library assistants in Mauritius

Marie Benoit
University of Mauritius
School of Administration

The University of Mauritius, with the financial help of the International Development Research Centre of Canada (IDRC) embarked on a fifteen-month experimental course in 1978 for the training of library assistants who were already working in libraries. The main aim of the experiment was to evolve a course of approximately one year taking three afternoons weekly, geared to local conditions and using available resources. The experiment was a success and the course, after minor alterations, will be repeated for the fourth time in 1981.

The need for short-term courses

In developing countries short-term courses for library assistants, held locally, are necessary to bring the working staff of libraries, information and documentation centres up to a higher level of efficiency. Even the smaller nations of the developing world, such as Mauritius, are affected by the information explosion. The need for storing and retrieving this flow of information and disseminating it to the relevant decision-makers, research workers, educators, students, etc., has become a necessary task to support national development efforts.

In Mauritius many government ministries and departments, the national broadcasting system and newspapers have, if not libraries, at least reading-rooms for the use of in-house researchers and decision-makers as well as the general interested public. These libraries and information centres usually began with a shelf of books and a few files of documents in the charge of a clerk, typist or messenger. As the nation develops these governmental and quasi-governmental bodies are expanding and their need for information is growing proportionately. The clerk who administered the original shelf of books has moved with the collection, which is now housed in its own room or building, and has actually become if not a 'librarian' at least an 'officer-in-charge of a library'. By virtue of seniority and tenacity, he finds himself having to serve a clientele and sometimes to administer a budget and perhaps a support staff, in spite of the fact that he has had little or no professional guidance or training. Although most of these libraries do function, offering minimal services based upon fragments of expertise acquired by observation or simply through serendipity, the need for more formal training is obvious.

Apart from the training needs of library assistants in the smaller libraries, in the larger libraries also (which are often run by professional librarians) there is usually a need for trained assistants to relieve professionals from routine duties and thus enable them to do more creative work. Most library assistants, because of inadequate educational background, economic limitations or geographic isolation are unable to follow professional courses abroad or at home, where these are available. Short-term courses held locally are therefore needed to solve some of these training problems.

IDRC aid

In 1978, with these and other problems in mind, the University of Mauritius set up an experimental fifteen-month course in library studies at certificate level. This Library Assistants' Training Experiment was funded by both the International Development Research Centre of Canada (IDRC) and the Government of Mauritius. Under an agreement between the University and the IDRC a course director was recruited abroad by IDRC while a deputy course director (the present author) was recruited locally by the university. IDRC provided the sum of C $94,700 while government's financial support was a local equivalent of C $14,600.

The main aim of the experiment was to evolve a course of approximately one year taking three afternoons weekly, geared to local conditions and using available resources.

The aim of the course itself was to provide training in routine library techniques and methods to enable students to become more proficient in the performance of their duties. The course also endeavoured to create in the students an awareness of information potential in national development. The emphasis was on the practical aspects of librarianship and the course did not lead to full professional status. It was offered only to those already employed in the field and receiving practice during their daily work. Mauritius has an unemployment problem and the university did not want to flood the market with library assistants with no job prospects. Thus, priority was given to those who had some form of practical experience. Those recruited also had to possess at least the School Certificate in five subjects with credits in English and another language.

We started with twenty-four students. Three dropped out, one of them to follow a degree course in librarianship in India. Their jobs ranged from a municipal librarian, who ran the library for a town of about 50,000 inhabitants, to those working in 'cupboard' libraries.

Although the course was intended for library assistants, we were obliged to give priority to those of a higher grade, who were already working in libraries but who had no hope of going abroad for professional training in the near future.

The course had to be compatible with the busy, complex lives of the students involved. Three of the women students were pregnant. In addition to their professional duties, which often included shift work, most students had families to take care of once they arrived home. They also had to find time for the preparation of their written course work, of which there was a substantial amount, and for the assessment of reference materials scattered in different libraries.

Course content

The following parts of the syllabus were largely based on the course content of the British City and Guilds Library Assistants' Certificate: Library and Society, Elements of Library Management, Classification, Cataloguing and Indexing, Bibliographical Control and Reference Work. We also included General Studies. Here the students were given an introduction to the social economic, political and administrative structure of Mauritius, high-lighting the problems of a plural society, of a small plantation economy and of public administration for development. They were also given a brief introduction to Mauritian literature and an introduction to science and technology in society. This part of the syllabus also included an introduction to the use of statistics. In addition, a project had to be undertaken by the students either on an individual basis or, if the work involved was substantial, as a team.

The total number of contact hours was 400, broken down as follows: Library and Society, 40 hours; Elements of Library Management, 80; Classification, Cataloguing and Indexing, 100; Bibliographical Control and Reference Work, 100; Project Work, 30; and General Studies, 50 hours.


Fifty per cent of the marks were awarded for course work, i.e. essays, notes in preparation for seminars, practical exercises in cataloguing, reference and so on. The remaining 50 per cent were awarded for written examinations.

Learning by doing

Lectures on sultry sub-tropical afternoons after half a day's work and a long uncomfortable bus-ride had to be delivered with great enthusiasm if they were not to induce sleep. We encouraged the students to participate and lectures usually evolved into lively class discussions with everyone exchanging experiences and problems. Seminars were held once a week.

As often as we could we carried our class off campus for observation visits and guided tours to different kinds of libraries, the national archives and related institutions. Because Mauritius is small most libraries are easily accessible and often students gave us guided tours of their own libraries. In some cases reports had to be submitted on what they had observed. We trailed behind the French Embassy's van seeing how their library book-box drops in rural areas function and how much one group of handicapped readers depended on these books for their recreation. All this added a new perspective particularly to those who had never before ventured beyond the confines of their own libraries.

A large empty room at the university was equipped with tables, chairs and shelving. The 'lab' ended up looking and sounding Eke the processing room of most overcrowded libraries in the Third World. There the students made accessories for the Browne circulation system using locally available paper and card. They practised using a card duplicator, filing publisher's catalogues in locally made pamphlet boxes, checking in periodicals and preparing them for binding. The British Council kindly let us borrow, on a long-term basis, about 500 books and pamphlets which had been part of a travelling exhibition of books on librarianship. While half the students were taught the basic principles of cataloguing and classification, using these books with one member of the staff, the other half did practical work on reference books in the university library with the other member. In fact the 'lab' idea was not a great success. It needed better organization and at least two other persons to supervise the students.

Teaching aids

An adequate flow of audio-visual materials was made available by the French and American embassies but mostly the British Council (alas, it closed its doors in March 1980). Through their local offices we were able to borrow slide presentations, films, video cassettes and tapes of lectures and interviews by eminent librarians. This helped to give the students a good idea of what libraries and their services were like in Europe and the United States and enabled them to form objectives, set standards and draw comparisons.

In spite of the fact that textbooks had been ordered a year before the course started, only a few had arrived. So this was a problem which had to be overcome. When we were not teaching and doing administrative work we were preparing handouts to supplement the curriculum. Eventually we realized that to some extent the lack of books had not been such a handicap. First of all, few appropriate books are available at this level. None relate to the realities of library operation in the Third World. With students who were practising in the field and very much aware of local conditions, it was difficult to talk only of ideal and sophisticated methods. Our feet were kept firmly and constantly on the ground and ivory towers quickly abandoned. Secondly, we realised that working students would have had to make an almost supreme effort to find the time and energy to cope with long reading lists. Some developed an interest in a particular subject in which case time was found to nurture this interest through reading. However official reading lists only seemed to induce a sense of guilt. But handouts were read, and proved to be a helpful adjunct to lectures and seminars.

We kept our eyes and ears open for any appropriate person who came to Mauritius and who might accept an invitation to talk to the students, give them the benefit of their experience and thus make the course more interesting and alive. Our vigilance paid off and most visitors proved to be easily approachable and willingly volunteered their services. Among our speakers was the regional representative of the Library of Congress, a well-known French library educator who had been lecturing in the neighbouring island of Réunion, the managing director of a well-known British firm of library suppliers and the wife of a World Bank consultant, an expert on book preservation. Fortunately our students are bilingual (some speak an oriental language as well) which gave us a wider choice of speakers.

For the General Studies component of the course we utilized the regular university staff. Lectures on the local political and economic set-up and local writers were particularly appreciated.

Although most of the teaching was done by the. Director and his deputy some practising librarians were invited to give lectures on the state of the art and their own experiences in the field.


As part of the final assessment each student had to submit a project at the end of the last term. Initially a short proposal was submitted to the teachers and each student was given an opportunity to discuss his or her idea with one of the teachers. Some ideas turned out to be too ambitious and had to be abandoned. The emphasis was on producing something useful but with which Certificate-level students could cope. Many students decided to produce a guide to the library in which they were working. All students submitted a draft of their project to one of the teachers. This was discussed and, where necessary, amended. Most students took enormous pride in their project and went to great lengths (and often expense) to produce a presentable piece of work.

Perhaps the most useful project of all was a Bibliography of Mauritian Government Publications, 1955-1978, which has a total of 549 entries. The materials recorded are based on the holdings of the Mauritius National Archives which enjoy legal deposit and are one of the repositories of government official publications. In their Bibliography of Mauritius (1502-1954) covering the Printed Record Manuscripts, Archivalia and Cartographic Material (Port Louis, 1956), A. Toussaint and H. Adolphe list government publications in Group B (periodicals, newspapers and serials 1769-1954). This project therefore updates part of this section of Toussaint and Adolphe's bibliography and contains a comprehensive index of authors and corporate bodies.

It is hoped that this useful work will eventually find a publisher. This would encourage the compiler to devise some method of keeping it up to date.

Among the worthwhile projects completed by students in subsequent years is A List of Projects and Dissertations Submitted by Students of the School of Administration, University of Mauritius, from the setting up of the University in 1970 to 1979. It is hoped that another project, A List of Publications of Members of the Teaching Staff of the School of Administration of the University of Mauritius is only the beginning of a list which will include the publications of all members of the teaching staff of the university.

The city Library of Port Louis is one of the oldest libraries in Mauritius, having been established in the 1850s. The project on French Literature in Mauritius (1800-1979): a Select Bibliography of French Literature with a Mauritian Imprint in the City Library of Port Louis is therefore an almost complete guide to Mauritian literature in French and a very useful bibliographical tool.

Mauritius has a multilingual and multiracial society. A Bibliography of the Literature of Mauritius (Hindi and Bhojpuri) 1909-1980 is another project that deserves publication. Its compiler devoted a great deal of time and energy to it. She had to track down publications in the collections of individual bibliophiles. Although the Archives enjoy legal deposit the preservation of oriental materials has not been taken seriously enough. Therefore the collection of the Archives could not be relied upon.

Most of these projects involved far more work and were of a far higher standard than was needed at certificate level.


It can be said with satisfaction that the experiment was successful and attained its objectives. Forty-seven students have successfully completed the courses since they began. The author now acts as the course supervisor and the course will be run for the fourth time in 1981. Its length has been reduced from fifteen months to one academic year in line with other certificate courses at the university.

There is no doubt that most developing countries are in a position to set up such a certificate course attuned to the needs of the country concerned, without too much difficulty.

It is unfortunate that in the case of Mauritius no survey of the existing libraries has been conducted so far. This makes it difficult to estimate the number of library personnel required for various kinds of libraries in the country. Nevertheless there is little doubt that a diploma course is needed and should be introduced in the near future.

5.10 Human problems in information work

Stress, as experienced by some librarians

by Maurice Payette and Edith Guay

Results of a study identifying the parameters of stress experienced by librarians. Four elements were highlighted to evaluate the influence of external factors: life events, working environment, educational background and bureaucratic aspects of work. Personal factors result in different styles of behaviour in the work situation. Advice is offered on how to avoid stress or its dangerous effects.

Résultats d'une recherche visant à identifier les différents paramètres du stress chez le bibliothécaire. Quatre éléments ont été retenus pour évaluer l'influence des facteurs externes: événements de la vie, milieu de travail, formation reçue, aspect bureaucratique de travail. Les facteurs personnels se traduisent par des styles de comportement dans des situations d'activités. On conclut par quelques conseils destinés à prévenir le stress ou ses effets nocifs.

It is paradoxical that librarians, who are generally looked on as calm people living in a peaceful environment, should be so keen to study the problems of stress encountered in their work as to raise this subject at their Annual Congress. No one would be surprised to see a gathering of air traffic controllers talking about stress, but can it be that librarians are subjected in their work to pressures that create a high degree of tension?

Invited to speak on stress at the Annual Congress of Professional Librarians, a momentarily taken aback professor of psychology decided to look into this reality more closely and felt the need to find out from those who were going to be his audience how the problem was actually experienced. The decision was thus taken, in co-operation with the organizers of the Congress, to conduct a brief and limited study identifying the various parameters of stress among librarians and to make the findings known to the participants in the Congress. The interest aroused by the main findings of this study was such that it was thought appropriate to pass on the information to a wider public, which shows that librarians take more than a mere passing interest in stress.

The purpose of this article therefore is to report on the data gathered by means of a short questionnaire distributed to the 90 librarians who agreed to take part in the study.

It must be said straight away that this study, carried out in three weeks or so and hampered by postal delays, has no pretentions to being exhaustive or representative. Not all aspects of stress could be covered and the findings, in view of the sampling method and response rate, cannot be treated as generally applicable to the population of librarians belonging to Quebec's Corporation of Professional Librarians. Our conclusions apply only to the 90 librarians who agreed to answer our questionnaire. It is nevertheless true that our respondents as a group constitute a population that is diversified and heterogeneous in several respects; and that quite possibly, they therefore are fairly representative of the thinking of members of the Corporation, though there is no way we can be positive about this.


In gathering our information we took a number of precautions for the sake of maximum objectivity. Before constructing the study tool, the questionnaire, we carried out a preliminary survey by means of interviews with eight librarians from libraries of a variety of municipal, college and university institutions. The aim of this first stage was to pinpoint the factors contributing to stress in librarians by inviting the respondents to express themselves freely and spontaneously on how they experienced stress in their work. This initial information-gathering made it possible to devise a questionnaire reflecting the preoccupations of those to be surveyed rather than the theorizing of researchers. The librarians invited to take part in this preliminary survey were very co-operative and supplied an impressive array of material for analysis. Among other things, the interviews yielded a list of a great many sources of stress in work and a number of variables were identified which may affect the way in which librarians cope with these sources of stress. An initial questionnaire was compiled and submitted as a preliminary test to six potential respondents in order to check the relevance and clarity of the questions, the comprehensibility of the instructions, and also the reactions prompted by the questions. After filling in the questionnaire, each respondent was invited to make the comments he deemed appropriate. Taken together, the observations gathered enabled us to make a great many corrections before finalizing the questionnaire for the study.


Although we attempted when constructing our instrument to get as close up as possible to the problems of the target population, we nevertheless drew upon a theoretical model or particular conception of stress. For the past 40 years, researchers in several disciplines have been trying to identify the mysterious phenomenon of stress and arrive at some definitions of what is meant by it. From its many variations three main approaches may be distinguished:

We were guided mainly by this third approach, recently put forward by a team of researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, under Professor Richard Lazarus. This involves rejecting separate consideration of individual and environmental variables in favour of the view that there exist constant transactions between the resources of the individual and the demands of the environment, or the individual's psychical needs. Stress arises when the balance of power is upset, namely when the transactions break down because the internal or external demands exceed the individual's adaptive resources. This conception of stress offered by Lazarus has the great advantage of taking account of the two-way causal link between the individual and the environment, and of enabling a whole variety of stress-prevention strategies to be devised.


1. The population surveyed

Of the 220 questionnaires sent out to the future participants in the Congress and a sample of the membership of the Corporation, 90 were completed and returned. The respondents' ages range from 24 to 64 years and average 42. Of those replying, 51 were women and 39 men. The number of years of experience varies between one and 40, averaging 12.10. The respondents work in various institutions:

Municipal 13
College 13
University 29
Specialized 11
Other 23

As regards the work sector, we offered too limited a choice of replies, since over a quarter of them came under 'Other', 14 of them being engaged in referencing and nine in processing. All these data suggest that the persons consenting to reply constitute a very mixed group. It would be interesting to compare these characteristics with those of the members of the Corporation.

2. Perception of stress

Three questions were designed to see how the persons questioned viewed stress and its presence in work from a list of ten words, we first asked which three were immediately evoked by the idea of stress. The five most frequently mentioned are, in order: tension (79), pressure (56), anxiety (42), fatigue (30) and nervousness (24). It is interesting to note that terms with a more positive connotation such as stimulation, surpassing of oneself, health, efficiency and work came very much less into the picture. These findings suggest that the common image of stress is negative.

To the question 'Do you often feel under stress at work?', replies were requested on a scale from 1-6. Here are the results:

Scale No
1 (very seldom) 5
2 22
3 26
4 21
5 12
6 (very often) 4

The average is slightly to the 'seldom' side, with 3.28 on a scale of 16. By adding the replies to questions 1-3 and 4-6 on the scale we find that 53 (59 per cent) of the librarians taking part in the survey feel stress infrequently in their work, as against 37 (41 per cent) who consider they experience it fairly often.

How is the effect of stress on work perceived?

  No. %
- stimulates output 33 37
- decreases output 37 41
- has no effect on output 16 18
- no reply 4 4

3. Influence of external factors

To assess the importance of external factors in generating stress among the respondents, we asked four questions on the following factors:

Two United States researchers, Holmes and Rahe, carried out a survey of a very broad population to identify and weigh the main stressful life events. From the findings they were able to construct a scale often used for assessing the importance of situational demands in a person's life. These events, which are usually important changes such as losing a spouse, taking on a new job, moving home, or having a baby, are potential sources of stress since they generally require mental resilience and are liable, if numerous, to dig deep into resources that naturally vary from one person to another. To go back to the Lazarus model, these situations call for transactions which may either release new energy or cause a setback engendering stress.

We considered it would be helpful to use the scale to gauge the magnitude of the demands of life events in the case of the librarians invited to answer the questionnaire. The scale is very simple, since it merely requires indicating from a list of 30 events those that have occurred in the respondent's life in the past twelve months. From the sum of the weighted indices for individual items in the scale, a score can be assigned to each person. With our 90 respondents we found a very wide variety of situations, with scores ranging from 23-447 and averaging 118.34. A close look at the distribution curve shows that 73 per cent of those answering scored less than 150, which is regarded by Holmes and Rahe as a moderately stressful situation; 21 persons scoring between 150 and 300 experienced events demanding a great deal of resilience while two others, with scores in excess of 300, lived highly stress-prone lives. To carry this investigation further, it would now be interesting to cross-check the score with age, sex, years of experience, function and other variables.

Following our preliminary survey, we identified a series of 15 factors which may give rise to stress in the course of the librarian's work. We asked the respondents to indicate on a scale of 1-6 the extent to which each factor is liable to engender stress. The findings are given in the following table, where the factors have been placed in order of significance according to the replies. The average for each factor is that of all those listing it, the question not applying to some respondents. We also show the numbers and percentages of those considering the factor to be relatively significant as a source of stress (4, 5 and 6 on the scale), the percentages being based on the number of those for whom the factor applies.

Importance of sources of stress

Factor Average Relatively significant
Number %
1. Employer-employee relations 3.96 62 73
2. Structure of services 3.78 48 59
3. Staff relations 3.77 52 63
4. Work-load/staff ratio 3.73 49 58
5. Noise 3.67 43 52
6. Union conflicts 3.52 28 46
7. Keeping discipline 3.40 35 46
8. Ambient temperature 3.38 36 45
9. Customer demands 3.34 35 47
10. Budgetary limitations 3.26 36 42
11. Value conflicts 2.96 28 37
12. Lighting 2.89 24 36
13. Lack of space 2.84 24 34
14. Sexist behaviour 2.40 15 25
15. Furnishing 2.33 14 19

This table could be analysed and commented on at some length, and it reveals some very distinct trends. We confine ourselves to noting that the main sources of stress for our respondents are both interpersonal and organizational. The physical environment seems less important, with the exception of noise, which 52 per cent of the librarians replying regard as a significant factor. A good 30 of them consider noise to be highly stress-creating. It may be paradoxical to think that, in a library, noise can give rise to tension. But this finding bears out the transactional approach to stress, i.e. the belief that the reaction to a stimulus depends to a great extent on the individual's cognitive interpretation of the stimulus.

Our preliminary survey seems to indicate that some librarians feel that the training they have received is no longer adequate, and that they are therefore ill at ease in their work. This prompted us to formulate a question on perception of educational background.

Compared with the present requirements of your work, do you find your educational background

  No. %
very adequate 18 20
more or less adequate 45 50
more or less inadequate 21 23
very inadequate 2 2
no reply 4 4

The total of the respondents who consider their training to have been adequate is 70 per cent. As formulated, the question did not attempt to establish any link between training and stress; but certain correlations could be used to examine how those who are frequently under stress view the training they have received.

A final factor we examined was the bureaucratic aspects of work. Using on a scale of 1-6 to gauge the perceived influence of this factor we obtained the following replies:

Scale No.
1 (little influence) 16
2 12
3 27
4 18
5 11
6 (great influence) 4
No reply 2

A 61 per cent majority of respondents therefore considered the bureaucratic aspects of their work to have relatively little influence.

4. Influence of personal factors

According to the model we used, the emergence of stress depends not only on the external or internal factors that require a reaction or response but also, and just as importantly, on the individual's faculty of adaptation, that is to say the available energy and the ability to come to terms with the demands. Transactional ability comprises both coping skills and the ability to make use of adaptation strategies or techniques. These personal factors are concretized by styles of behaviour in the work situation. Research by Jenkins, a United States doctor seeking to identify persons more prone to heart disease, has produced a scale of behaviour patterns within a continuum ranging from 'easy-going' to 'hard-driving'. A set of indicators makes it possible to infer the various components of the different types of behaviour. In our study we used a simplified form of the Jenkins scale, with ten questions establishing a score for each respondent with a possible range from ten (easy-going) to 30 (hard-driving). We obtained a fairly even distribution, as can be seen from the graph below:

A fairly even distribution

The average is 20.37. Of the 90 respondents, 34 score less than 20 and may be regarded as tending to the easy-going side, 43 tend to be hard-driving with a score of over 20, and the remaining 14 are located at 20, in mid-scale.

There can be no question here of comparing librarians with people in other jobs, since our study is neither generally applicable nor comparative. The data accumulated nevertheless prompt a number of questions. Does this style of behaviour vary with age? Do men have the same tendencies as women? For the hard-driving, what is the influence of stress on output at work? And so on.

How do the respondents attempt to cope with working and environmental demands? For a clear majority (52 out of 83), the answer is learning to achieve inner relaxation. Only 19 of them try to obtain from the administrative authorities better working or environmental conditions. This suggests that in the transactional process of maintaining a balance between inner resources and external demands, the librarians surveyed display a marked tendency to turn to their inner resources.

A final question attempted to gauge the degree of success in coping with the environment. On the basis of a supposed work situation, respondents were asked to situate themselves on a six-point scale.

When you feel overwhelmed at work by the demands of the public, to what extent do you manage to respond adequately, without feeling that things get beyond you?

Scale No.
1 (to a very limited extent) 1
2 1
3 13
4 20
5 40
6 (to a very great extent) 14
No reply 1

The vast majority of the persons questioned therefore feel that they cope relatively well with potentially stressful situations.

We could conclude with some considerations on preventing stress or its dangerous effects. To take the approach used in our study, i.e. the Lazarus transactional model, success in coping can be prepared through a variety of strategies, some centred on personal resources and others on the demands to be faced. To begin with the environment, we can prevent stress by developing skills to ensure better control of it even changes in it. We can avoid overtaxing our inner resources to the point of depletion. We have no sway over some life events or some changes, but in other cases we do have a choice as to whether or not to initiate them. When we feel near the critical threshold of the balance between inner capacities and external pressures, it would be unwise to accede to certain expectations or demands. Individual or collective action upon the physical, social or institutional environment may prove an excellent way of reducing the number of sources of stress and their importance.

As to inner resources, we can learn to develop them by building up and making better use of coping skills. The various adaptation strategies, including defence mechanisms, must be learnt and used. These strategies include cognitive interpretation of external demands. Lazarus most appositely explains that the difference between a challenge and a threat largely depends on the way in which we perceive a stimulus. The same event may be highly threatening for one person and represent a challenge for another; a threat is liable to engender stress while a challenge may become a source of new energy. We can learn to transform threats into challenges and in so doing improve one's psychological health. One's life-style is also a prevention strategy. Clearly, hard-driving behaviour patterns should be avoided in order to ensure mental and physical health. More profoundly, however, we are touching upon a value issue: a healthy life that maintains a harmonious balance between work and leisure and is sustained by simple joys and pleasures, is still an excellent way of preventing stress.


HOLMES, T.H.; Rahe, R.H., 'The Social Readjustment Scale', Journal of Psychosomatic Research, Vol. 11 (1967), pp. 213-218.

JENKINS, C.D., et al., 'Coronary heart disease in the western collaborative group study: a follow-up of two years' Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 196 (1966) pp. 130-136.

LAZARUS, Richard S., 'Patterns of Adjustment', (New York, McGraw-Hill, 1977).

LAZARUS, Richard S., Launier, Raymond, 'Stress-Related Transactions between Person and Environment' in Pervin, L.H., Lewis, M. Prospectives in Interactional Psychology (New York, Plenum Press, 1977).

SELYE, Hans, 'Stress sans détresse' (Montreal, Editions La Presse, 1974).


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