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Performance measures for public libraries
Dr Donald E K Wijasuriya
National Library of Malaysia
This chapter is intended primarily to suggest the need for a greater degree of performance measurement and assessment in respect of the services provided by public libraries. It is written with specific reference to the public library sector in Malaysia although it may have wider applications both within the country as well as the region. Public library services are now provided in all states in Malaysia to a greater or lesser degree. Services are still very much urban oriented although the extension of services to the rural areas is receiving increasing emphasis.
In all eleven states in Peninsular Malaysia, public library legislation has now been enacted; State Public Library Corporations have been established and are functioning. In Sarawak and Sabah, public library services are provided by state and local government authorities without the benefit of supporting legislation. In Sabah, draft legislation is under consideration but no change is envisaged in the public library authority. In other words, public library services will continue to be provided by a State Government Department (viz., the Sabah State Library). The Statutory Corporation authority pattern in Peninsular Malaysia will not be adopted. For a more detailed account, reference should be made to the paper by Zainab Abdul Kadir and Adeline Leong presented at CONSAL V.1
THE 'STANDARDS' SYNDROME
In assessing the development of public library services in Malaysia since the Blueprint2 was first adopted in 1968, there has been a tendency to judge performance on the basis of the extent to which the 'standards' have been achieved. The 'standards' in this instance refer to the Blueprints' Interim Standards for Public Libraries, 1969-70 and Minimum Standards for Public Libraries, 1971-75. These 'standards' included statements of desirable conditions or provisions (qualitative and quantitative) and were to be implemented within a certain time frame, i.e. 1971-75. In reviewing achievements or performance nearly a decade later, the Persatuan Perpustakaan Malaysia prepared its revised Standards for Public Libraries in Malaysia and subjected them to review by a wider audience at the Joint Conference of the Persatuan Perpustakaan Malaysia (PPM) and the Library Association of Singapore (LAS) in March 1977.3
Following a period of further review by a Committee of the PPM Council, the Piawaian untuk Perpustakaan Awam di Malaysia (Standards for Public Libraries in Malaysia) were issued. Once again, the standards tended to take the form of statements of principle (e.g. 'Each State should have only a single library authority') or of provision (e.g. 'if satisfactory services are to be provided, a minimum of one librarian for every 25,000 of population served should be provided'). If the standards were used as a checklist, each clause or provision, to a greater or lesser extent could be said to have been attained. Shortfalls tend to be more evident in those areas where quantitative provisions are specified - for example in size of initial collections in central or branch libraries, rate of book acquisition per annum or ratio of professional staff to population served.
To complete the picture, in 1981, the Persatuan Perpustakaan Malaysia issued its Library Building Standards for Malaysia4 which contained provisions for public libraries as well. These standards too were reviewed by a wider audience at a Seminar on Library Buildings in 1981.5 The major difference between Piawaian untuk Perpustakaan Awam di Malaysia and the Library Building Standards for Malaysia is that the former was never formally adopted or endorsed by any library, administrative or financial authority while the latter was adopted 'in principle' by the Costs and Standards Committee of the Government's Economic Planning Unit. Although some of the standards are relatively recent (those pertaining to library buildings for instance) there have been standards for public libraries for nearly fifteen years. Yet it must be frankly admitted that despite attainment or near attainment of the standards, there is little meaningful development. Public library services have not permeated all strata of society and they do not seem to have made a significant contribution to overall national development.
This does not necessarily imply that the standards are without value. In many fields standards are in fact indispensable - particularly in industry and engineering. In some instances they are also enforceable by legislation, especially when failure to meet a standard may endanger human life. In the world of libraries, standards have applications but they mostly constitute guidelines or models to follow. Failure to follow or adhere to a given standard does not result in major catastrophes. Standards for libraries have been useful, among other reasons, to set preliminary targets, provide for adequate staff, or provide for adequate book collection.
But it is quite clearly short sighted to assess or evaluate development on the basis of the degree of attainment of the standards alone. The standards, by and large, place emphasis on inputs - whether qualitative or quantitative (e.g. how many books per head of population; how many professional librarians for a given concentration of population; how many reader seats per thousand of population, etc.). Inputs are important simply because without adequate inputs - especially of staff and materials - little can be expected in the way of outputs. However to assess or measure development on the basis of assessing the degree to which input standards have been attained can only result in false readings. Hence the concern during the 1970s with the attainment of standards, in other words with the investment of inputs must be supplemented with an equal, if not greater emphasis in the 1980s on the outputs and the measurement of performance.
Output/performance measurement (hereafter, the term performance only will be used) of libraries is not in any way a new phenomenon. De Prospo, in analyzing studies which have been completed on performance measurement of library services in the United States draws the following conclusions:
The results of the literature search are clear. Few antecedent approaches exist which the public library can utilize fruitfully in developing innovative approaches to measuring the performance of the services it offers its public. Most earlier writings in the pre- 1960s stress the need for evaluation but no concrete explanations of how to proceed. The truth of this statement is verified by the fact that the profession is still searching for a 'method'. On the other hand, few of the newer approaches cited lend themselves to implementation and interpretation by the practising librarian because of their reliance on highly sophisticated and complex methodologies.6
It is clear therefore that performance measurement for libraries is still tentative and experimental. For the developing countries still grappling with the tasks of establishing public library services, performance measurement may appear to be premature simply because the rate of development in many of these countries is so slow that performance, if any, may not be worth measuring. However the fact that performance measures is the subject of a working paper at CONSAL VI is indicative that some progress has been achieved in public library development in the Southeast Asian countries that might be worth measuring.
However in undertaking performance measurement, there are a number of objective standpoints from which performance can be measured. These include:
It is useful to bear in mind here that the distinction between cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit is somewhat tenuous, while the ultimate benefits of library services are very difficult to measure. The application of performance measures to libraries, including public libraries is not widespread even in the developed countries. In the developing countries, Malaysia, for example, we are taking our first tentative steps and could benefit much from interaction and involvement of public administrators, statisticians, management consultants and others in the performance measurement of libraries. In measuring the performance of the public library service, it is possible to measure the effectiveness, the cost-effectiveness or the cost-benefit aspect of the overall service, specific components of it (e.g. the lending, reference, document copying service etc.)
For reasons of expediency and economy, it would be desirable as a first step, to measure performance on the basis of the overall service. This is best done on a state by state basis by individual public library authorities. In embarking on such an exercise, it is useful to delimit, depending on resources and time available whether an evaluation in macro or micro is envisaged. The effectiveness of a system or a service can be evaluated by either method. Macroevaluation measures how well a system operates and is usually expressed quantitatively while microevaluation is diagnostic in that it probes into how a system operates and why it operates at a particular level. Obviously, microevaluation cannot be avoided if the ultimate object is to use the results of such evaluation or measurement to further improve, upgrade or extend the service. Based on the foregoing, microevaluation of the overall service in terms of its effectiveness would attempt to establish how well the service satisfies the demands placed upon it and how well the service meets the objectives of the organization.
In assessing how well the service satisfies demand, user participation is especially important. Essential tasks involved will include:
1. The identification of the various services provided, such as the following:
(a) Lending Services:
- Home lending
- Interlibrary lending
- Bulk lending
- Special Loans to hospitals, prisons, physically handicapped (blind, deaf, crippled, spastic)
- Postal lending
- Mobile lending
(b) Reference services:
- Reference enquiry (telephone, telex, in person)
- Literature search
- Bibliographic compilation
- Readers advisory
- Data base search
- Commercial information
(c) Exhibitions, talks, story telling, drama, etc.
2. The formulation of questionnaires based on the above, designed to gauge over a given period the user patronage of the service and user satisfaction.
Care however must be taken to ensure that the questionnaires are formulated meaningfully in order to elicit meaningful responses from users. Decisions will also have to be made whether:
Whatever method is adopted, there are bound to be major weaknesses in trying to assess how well the service satisfies demand. Generally, users are likely to assess the service on the basis of their most recent experiences of using the service. Performance measurement implies that the measuring device used is standard and can be reapplied at various points in time in order to give 'readings' which can then be compared. to assess whether performance has in fact improved. A library assistant may be able to letter 100 books in a normal working day; a cataloguer may catalogue twenty-five books in the same period. Both performances constitute a unit of measurement which can be applied at different points in time to give a performance 'reading'. In the case of a service provided, it is doubtful whether a standard measuring device can be reapplied at different points in time to give meaningful readings. In quantitative terms, how well the service is used or patronized can be measured to give a performance reading at different points in time. But in qualitative terms, how well the service satisfies demand is likely to be difficult to measure, and it may also be difficult to reapply the same measure at a different point in time in order to gauge performance.
Possibly a more realistic alternative would be to measure effectiveness in terms of how well the service meets the objectives of the organization. This of course presupposes that clear-cut and tangible objectives have in fact been established. It is simply not possible to evaluate a service unless there are set objectives, the attainment of which can be measured. Libraries in general tend to lack clearly defined objectives. Often, library statements of objectives tend to be vague generalizations. Examples of objectives given by Hamburg7 relating to libraries include the following:
Objectives such as these may provide a broad framework for operations but they certainly provide no specific goals - whether long or short term - which can be measured. Service institutions must set short term objectives against which performance can be measured.
Drucker8 states very clearly that:
Achievement is never possible except against specific, limited, clearly defined targets, in business as well as in a service institution. Only if targets are defined can resources be allocated to their attainment, priorities and deadlines be set, and somebody be held accountable for results. But the starting point for effective work is a definition of the purpose and mission of the institution - which is almost always 'intangible' but nevertheless need not be vacuous.
To illustrate further the idea of clear-cut objectives or targets, it could be said, for example, that the objective of the public library 'to provide facilities for the life-long education of the individual' would be considered imprecise and difficult to measure. So also would be the objective or target to provide services to the rural areas.' On the other hand 'to increase membership of the public library service by people in the rural areas by 30%' is quantifiable and can be subject to performance measurement. In other words, while lofty ideals and statements of intent may be incorporated in legislative acts or enactments or in statements of policy in order to provide a broad framework for operations, the setting of short term, clear cut targets or objectives cannot be avoided if some degree of accuracy in performance measurement is desired. The setting of short term targets or objectives should normally constitute an essential aspect of annual budget proposals so that appropriate resource allocation can be considered.
In the absence of clear-cut objectives or targets, it should be borne in mind that the major objective of all library activity - and public libraries are no exception - is to maximize exposure to library materials. But what exactly constitute exposure? Generally it could be said that exposure takes place:
In each instance there has been exposure (interface between the library/librarian and the user). How effective the exposure has been, however, is not known. Exposure effectiveness could in fact be dependent on a whole range of other factors such as the nature of the collections (subject range, language, audience level), physical accessibility and the degree of satisfaction of user need. In a simplistic sense, exposure can quite easily be quantified. Each loan, each consultation (reference use), each item of library material copied (photo copied, microcopied or copied in audio or video cassette), each enquiry (by telephone, telex, etc.) could constitute a unit for measurement. For example, consultation of the Malaysian Population and Housing Census, 1980 (a single consultation lasting twenty minutes) would be scored as one unit of measurement, just as the Ioan (for two weeks' home reading) of Alvin Toffler's Third Wave or a telephone enquiry for the address of an import-export agency, would each be scored as one unit for measurement.
Whether exposure of the same magnitude has taken place is difficult to determine. A book may be borrowed for two weeks, but this does not mean that the book was read continuously over the two weeks or for that matter read at all. The telephone enquiry (assuming immediate response) may not have taken more than six minutes. The effectiveness of exposure, however, should not be dependent on economic benefit. In other words the six-minute telephone enquiry for the address of an import-export agency which may have led to some economic benefit should not be deemed to be more effective exposure than the twenty-minute consultation of the Population and Housing Census for a term paper or a child's adventure into fantasy, reading the Wizard of Oz. In the ultimate analysis, the effectiveness of exposure must be measured by the degree of user satisfaction - whatever the level of use or purpose.
Devising quantitative measures of exposure and incorporating into library housekeeping routines the necessary statistical recording of each occurrence of exposure should not be too difficult. Macroevaluation of exposure here would merely quantify and enable comparisons of exposure within given time periods. If represented graphically, it could reveal the peak and slack periods and could reveal some interesting associations. It will not however indicate why exposure is what it is nor will it indicate how exposure could be improved or the degree of satisfaction further upgraded.
As stated earlier, microevaluation is diagnostic in nature. It attempts to probe deeper and since the overall service (to the public) is being evaluated, it is the degree of user satisfaction that is measured. This could be compared with data obtained in macroevaluation. It must be pointed out that a high incidence of use does not necessarily point to a high degree of user satisfaction. The microevaluation of user' satisfaction or effectiveness of exposure cannot be undertaken without staff and user participation. Time, quality and benefit considerations or criteria would normally be applied. Data will have to be obtained through questionnaire or personal interview and this is not so easily done.
Quite apart from the difficulty of grading satisfaction levels or establishing the degree of satisfaction attained, individual users will have to be interviewed or they will have to complete a questionnaire each time they return a book or other library material borrowed. The same will have to apply in respect of books or other library material consulted within the library. The enquiry service (with requests received by telephone, telex etc.) will present even greater difficulties. In fact each occurrence of use will have to be evaluated. Performance measurement implying a standard measuring device would appear to be inapplicable in the above situations.
It may well be that only quantitative aspects in a macroevaluation situation can be subject to performance measurement while qualitative aspects in a microevaluation situation can only be subject to assessment from time to time since the I measuring' device used (the reader, patron or user of the service) will not only be subjective in his approach, but is not likely to be the same individual who may be used in a subsequent qualitative assessment exercise.
It could conceivably be argued that performance measures of demand satisfaction (how well the service satisfies the demands placed upon it) or performance measures to assess how well a service meets the objectives of an organization are but varying expressions of the same idea, considering that the objectives of a service organization would usually relate very closely to the demand for the services of that organization. In the case of the public library service, the major objective may be to maximize exposure to library materials, but the measurement of actual exposure (through loans, reference use of materials, enquiries, etc.) is simply a measurement of the demand for the service as expressed through loans, reference use of materials, etc. Microevaluation, whether of demand satisfaction or exposure effectiveness may not be sufficient, especially in a situation where the degree of 'demand' or 'exposure' is largely conditioned by a situation in which
represents a relatively small proportion of the total population of the state concerned. This fact is quite evident in the following table showing the state population and the registered library membership.
As will be observed, on average less than 3.7% of the population of each state are registered members of the library service and largely constitute the 'demand' for the service or provide the objective for exposure. Even this may be an exaggeration of the true situation, taking note of the fact that the registered membership includes inactive and possibly defunct members. It is perhaps more realistic to express the total registered membership of the state public library service as a percentage of the potential user population (PUP) of the state rather than as a percentage of the total state population. The PUP is considered to include the total population of a state aged six-nine, and the literate population aged ten and above.9 Unfortunately, however, at the time of writing, literacy figures in respect of the Population and Housing Census, 1980 had not been published and hence were not available. Even without the exact figures, however, it is reasonable to assume that the percentage of public library membership to the PUP is likely to be higher than that depicted in the table. The overall position, however, has not changed. The total user group in relation to the PUP of each state is definitely quite small.
Table 1 - Public Library Membership, Malaysia, 1980
|State||Population*||Public Library Membership**|
|Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur||937,817||37,508||3.99|
* Malaysia Population and Housing Census, 1980
** Statistics maintained at the National Library of Malaysia
Statistics of library users (non-members) not available.
Despite this, it must be accepted that since the actual registered membership, as depicted in the earlier table, ranges from a low of 0.31 % to a relative high of 17.23%, it would be highly illuminating if surveys could be undertaken by individual State Public Library authorities to find out why the majority of the potential user population of the state are not making use of public library facilities. Bearing in mind the fact that the bulk of the population in most states is in the rural areas, it would be highly instructive to isolate the factors causing this low level of usage. Questionnaire surveys, however, would be quite impractical in the rural areas. Instead it may be necessary to interview an appropriate sample of the potential user population of the state in order to obtain the necessary information. What is envisaged here is not a user survey for that would be an expression of existing demand, but a survey of nonusers or an opinion poll.
It is quite possible that the data so obtained would confirm and quantify some of the following as the major reasons why public library services are so little used:
If public libraries are to improve their ranking in the scale of national priorities, they must be able to demonstrate a more positive contribution to national development efforts. Providing a more congenial atmosphere for school children to do their homework or prepare for terminal examinations is unlikely to move decisionmakers to improve or maintain funding in the face of dwindling resources and competing demands. There is a constant and continuing need, therefore, for assessment and reassessment of the services provided by public libraries. Quantitative measurement and qualitative assessment must become an integral and essential part of public library management. If staffing limitations within a public library system preclude this, then other agencies such as the National Library, the Library Association or the Library School should initiate or undertake the necessary evaluative studies, surveys or research and help to channel effort in the right direction. In the long term, the survival of the public library may depend on it.
Daiute, Robert J and Kenneth A Gorman. Library operations research. New York, Oceans Publications, 1974.
Do Prospo, Ernest R at al. Performance measures for public libraries. Ernest R Do Prospo Ellen Altman, Kenneth E Beasley with the assistance of Ellen C Clark. (Chicago) American Library Association Malaysian Population Census is only applied to the population aged ton and above, whereas the age groups five-nine years, who attend pro-school or primary school would also be potential library users.
Getz, Malcolm. Public Libraries: An economic view. Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press .
Goldhor, Herbert ad. Measurement and evaluation; papers presented at a Conference conducted by the University of Illinois Graduate School of Library Science, 10-13 September 1967. Champaign, Illinois, University of Illinois Graduate School of Library Science. .
Lancaster, IF W. The measurement and evaluation of Library Services. F W. Lancaster with the assistance of M J Joncich. [Washington] Information Resources Press .
Lancaster, F W and C W Cleverdon. Evaluation and scientific management of libraries and information contras. Leyden, Nordhoff, 1977.
1Zainab Abdul Kadir and Adeline Leong. Access to information: Malaysia in Access to information; proceedings of the 5th Congress of Southeast Asian Librarians, Kuala Lumpur, 25-29 May 1981. Edited by D E K Wijasuriya, Yip Seong Chun and Syed Salim Agha. Kuala Lumpur, CONSAL V, 1982.
2Hedwig Anuar. Blueprint for Public Library Development in Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur, Persatuan Perpustakeen Malaysia, 1968.
3Shahaneem Mustafa and Neil Wilkinson. Standards for Public Libraries in Malaysia in Keperluan mengetahui: Perkembangan perkhidmatan perpustaakaan awam bagi masyarakat; the need to know: Developing public library services for the community. Proceedings of a Joint Conference of the Persatuan Perpustakaan Malaysia and the Library Association of Singapore, Petaling Jaya 3-5 March 1977. Edited by D E K Wijasuriya in collaboration with Ch'ng Kim See, Khoo Slow Mun, Shahaneem Mustafa. Kuala Lumpur Persatuan Perpustakaan Malaysia, Library Association of Singapore, 1977.
4Library Building Standards for Malaysia: A guide with recommendations. Report of the Adhoc Committee on Standards for Library Buildings of the Persatuan Perpustakaan Malaysia. Serdang, Selangor, (PPM), 1981.
5The PPM has also issued standards for special
libraries and School Libraries:
(a) Guidelines for Special Librarians. PPM, 1977
(b) Blueprint for school library development in Malaysia. Edited by D E K Wijasuriya based on a draft report by B A J Winslade. Kuala Lumpur, PPM, 1979.
6Ernest R de Prospo at al. Performance Measures for public libraries. (Chicago), American Library Association, (1973), p 11.
7M Hamburg at al. Library planning and decision making systems. Cambridge, Mess., MIT Press, 1974.
8Peter F Drucker. Managing the public service institution. The Public interest. 3, 1973, pp 43-W
9The reason for this is that literacy, according to the .
PGI STUDIES AND DOCUMENTS IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING
ATHERTON, P. - Guidelines for the organization of training courses, workshops and seminars in scientific and technical information and documentation. Paris : Unesco, 1975. - 88 p. - (SC-75/WS/29). Also available in French and Spanish
ATHERTON, P. - Handbook for information systems and services. - Paris: Unesco, 1977. - 259 p. (ISBN 92-3-101457-9). Also available in French, Russian and Spanish
COCHRANE, P. - User based information services. A slide-tape presentation. Paris : Unesco, 1987. - (PGI-86/WS/27). Only limited number of copies available
COOK, M. - Guidelines on curriculum development in information technology for librarians, documentalists and archivists. - Paris : Unesco, 1986. - 123 p. (PGI-86/WS/26). Spanish and French versions in preparation
COOK, M. - Guidelines for curriculum development in records management and the administration of modern archives : a RAMP study. - Paris : Unesco, 1982. - 74 p. (PGI-82/WS/16). Also available in French and Spanish
EVANS, A.J., RHODES, R.G., KEENAN, S. Education and training of users of scientific and technical information UNISIST Guide for teachers. - Paris : Unesco, 1977. - 143 p. (ISBN 92-3-101452-5). Also available in French, Russian and Spanish
FISHBEIN, M.H. - A Model curriculum for the education and training of archivists in automation : a RAMP study. - Paris : Unesco, 1985. - 33 p. (PGI-85/WS/27). Includes a bibliography. Also available in Spanish
GUINCHAT, C., MENOU, M. - Introduction générale aux sciences et techniques de l'information et de la documentation. - Paris : Les Presses de l'Unesco, 1981. - 402 p. (ISBN 92-3-201860-80). Also available in English and Spanish. Arab and Chinese versions in preparation. Price: 90 FF
HALL, N. - Teachers, information and school libraries. - Paris : Unesco, 1986. - 110 p. (PGI-86/WS/17). Also available in Spanish. French version in preparation
HARMONIZATION of training in librarianship, information science and archives. Paris : Unesco, 1987. - 13 p. - (PGI-87/WS/2). Also available in French and Spanish
HARRIS, C. - Training package on information and documentation. - Paris: Unesco, 1987. - (PGI-86/WS/28). Only limited number of copies available
INTERNATIONAL Symposium on harmonization of education and training programmes in information science, librarianship and archival studies. Unesco House, Paris, 8-12 October 1984. Final Report. - Paris : Unesco, 1984. - 13 p. (PGI/E.T./HARM. 11/80). Also available in French
KATHPALIA, Y.P. - A Model curriculum for the training of specialists in document preservation and restoration : a RAMP study with guidelines. Paris: Unesco, 1984. - vi, 31 p. (PGI-84/WS/2). Also available in French and Spanish
LANCASTER, F.W. - Guidelines for the evaluation of training courses, workshops and seminars in scientific and technical information and documentation. - Paris: Unesco, 1975. - 102 p. (SC-75/WS/44). Also available in French and Spanish
LANCASTER, F.W. - Guidelines for the evaluation of training courses, workshops and seminars (second edition). - Paris: Unesco, 1983. - 129 D. (BEP/83/III). English only
LARGE J.A. A Modular curriculum in information studies. - Paris: Unesco, 1987. 89 p. (PGI-87/WS/5). Also available in French. Spanish version in preparation
MODERN archives administration and records management: a RAMP reader compiled by Peter Walne with the assistance of a working group of the International Council on Archives. - Paris: Unesco, 1985. - 587 p. (PGI-85/WS/32). Also available in French and Spanish
MOORE, N. - Guidelines for conducting information manpower surveys; Vol. I The Manual; Vol. II Questionnaires and accompanying documents. - Paris: Unesco, 1986. - 88, 34 p. (PGI-86/WS/3). Also available in French and Spanish
NEELAMEGHAN, A. - Guidelines for formulating policy on education, training and development of library and information personnel. - Paris: Unesco, 1978. - 38 p. (PGI-78/WS/29). Also available in French and Spanish
NEWSLETTER on education and training programmes for information personnel. Published by FID under Unesco contract. - The Hague: FID, 1979
PARKER, J.S. - Library and information science and archive administration: a guide to building up a basic collection for library schools. - Paris: Unesco, 1984. - 148 p. (PGI-84/WS/11). English only
REGISTER of short-term education and training activities in librarianship, information science and archives / Inventaire des activités de formation de brève durée dans le domaine de la bibliothéconomie, des sciences de l'information et de l'archivistique / Inventario de las actividades de formacion de breva duracion en la esfera de la bibliotecologia, las ciencias de la informacion y la archivologia / Second edition. Compiled and edited by M.L. DOSA and J. COLLIN. - The Hague, Paris: FID and Unesco, 1984, 187 p.
SARACEVIC, T. - A course in information consolidation. A Handbook for education and training in analysis, synthesis and repackaging of information (preliminary version). - Paris: Unesco, 1986. - 128 p. (PGI86/WS/14). English only
SAUNDERS, W.L. - Guidelines for curriculum development in information studies. - Paris: Unesco, 1978. - 38 p. (PGI-78/WS/27). Also available in French and Spanish
SIMMONS, P. - Teaching package on the use of information handling standards: computer aspects of bibliographic records, computer hardware, computer software (Preliminary version). - Paris: Unesco, 1986. (PGI-86/WS/4). Various pagings. Further modules to be issued later.
THOMPSON, A.H. - Guide to the production and use of audio-visual aids in library and information science teaching. - Paris: Unesco, 1983. - 125 p. (PGI-83/WS/17). Also available in French and Spanish
VAN PATTEN DE OCAMPO, E.M.. - La integracion de la biblioteca escolar/centro de recursos de aprendizaje al curriculum de las escuelas. Programa de capacitacion para su uso en las escuelas formadoras de maestros. - ocho Modulos. 27, 19, 18, 40, 34, 33, 40, 23 p. - Unesco: Caracas, 1987. (PGI/LAC-87/WS/2). Available from Unesco Caracas office. Spanish only
VAUGHAN, A. - Reader on management. To be issued in 1987. French and Spanish versions in 1988
WASSERMAN, P., RIZZO, J.R. - A Course in administration for managers of information services: design, implementation and topical outline. - Paris: Unesco, 1977. - 79 p. (SC-76/WS/110). Also available in French
WATSON, D.G. - Guidelines for the organization of short courses and workshops on the dissemination of data in science and technology. - Paris: Unesco, 1986. - 73 p. (PGI-86/WS/11). French and Spanish versions in preparation. Also available in French and Spanish
WHITE, B. - Directory of audio-visual materials for use in records management and archives administration training. - Paris: Unesco, 1982. 71 p. (PGI-82/WS/8). English only
WILSON, T.D. - Guidelines for developing and implementing a national plan for training and education in information use. - Paris: Unesco, 1980. 50 p. (PGI-80/WS/28). Also available in French and Spanish
WORLD Guide to library schools and training courses in documentation Guide mondial des écoles de bibliothécaires et de documentalistes. Second edition. - London: Clive Bingley; Paris: The Unesco Press, 1981. 549 p. (ISBN 0-85157-309-6). Out of print
Copies of the above studies and documents are available from:
Division of the General
7, Place de Fontenoy
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