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6. Manuals and textbooks available for archival training
During the last two decades very helpful manuals have been published in the English language: in the United States, in the United Kingdom and in Australia.
Among the most useful of these are the books of Michael Cook who teaches archives administration at the University of Liverpool. His Archives Administration. a Manual for Intermediate and Smaller Organizations and for Local Government (1977) is of great use in training. The Management of Information from Archives (1986) gives more detailed information about archives administration and its new challenges as a branch of information management The author points out that the latter book should be used together with A Manual of Archival Description, (a second edition of which, written by Michael Cook and Margaret Procter, was published in 1990).
In the USA James Gregory Bradsher edited: Managing Archives and Archival Institutions. Published in London in 1988, its chapters are written by several authors. The Australian textbook, Keeping archives, edited by Ann Pederson (1988), is equally popular in the USA.
The most important manual in French is "Manuel d'Archivistique". Published in 1970, it is a collection of articles by about 40 archivists. Despite its age in some respects, it remains the reference work "par excellence" and is currently being brought up to date.
The "Guide pratique a l'usage de l'archiviste-documentaliste" (by Françoise Durand-Evrard and Claude Durand, 1985) is very useful in the teaching of archives administration and has the added merit of examining the differences in techniques employed by archivists and documentalists.
France is a centralised country and the experiences of local and national archives services have been drawn upon in the laws, decrees and circulars which govern them. These make up an impressive body of professional reference material which is of great use to archivists and students alike.
In Canada the French-language manual: Les archives au XXe siècle, written by Carol Couture and Jean-Yves Rousseau, was published in 1982. It presents a particular view of archival practice current in Quebec. It has been translated into English under the title The life of a Document and is also well known in the USA. It is however not used for training in France perhaps because of the differences in archival traditions.
The comprehensive German manual is Archivwissenschaft (1976), written by Johannes Papritz. It is based on his lectures in the archives school in Marburg. In East Germany two significant manuals were published: Archivverwaltungslehre by Gerhard Enders (1967) and Archivwesen der DDR. Theorie und Praxis, edited by Botho Brachmann (1984). The first is a traditional, clear textbook which is also still used as a reference work. The second, though ordered with some ideological bias, might serve as a model for a new comprehensive model in German which, so far, has to be replaced by the introduction Einführung in die Archivkunde by E G. Franz.
In Italy there are two important works used in archival training. Elio Lodolini's Archivistica. Principi e problemi (1984, 5th ed., 1990) is a fundamental manual of archival theory presented in a clear fashion. Paola Carucci's Le fonti archivistiche: ordinamento e conservazione sets out theoretical and practical criteria for arrangement and for the listing of archives. It is mainly used in archives schools and in courses.
The most important and fullest Spanish manual is Antonia Heredia Herrera's Archivistica General. Teoria y Practica (second edition 1991). One of the few Spanish works that can be called a textbook in the full sense of the word is Introduccion a la Archivistica (1989) by Pedro Lopez Gomez and Olga Gallego Dominguez, firstly written in Galician.
The Soviet Union has produced Teoria i praktika archivnogo dela v SSSR: Ucebnik, edited by F.I. Dolgich and K.I. Rudel'son (1980), a book which has also been translated into German (Theorie und Praxis des Archivwesens in der UdSSR, (Berlin 1983). Although already partly out of date, it can still be used in the training of archivists. Over the last few years various pamphlets on different areas of archives administration have been published: they are sometimes easier to use than the older manual.
In Yugoslavia there are some textbooks at secondary school level and publications for higher education as well. These include Archivistica (1984), written by Joze Zontar. Among other East European countries, modern manuals have also been published in Poland, Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria.
Turning to Scandinavia, the most important Swedish textbook is Nils Nilsson's Arkivkunskap although, as it was published in 1973, it is already partly out of date. Nilsson is the most famous archival theorist in Scandinavia to have dealt with the varying concepts of archives in different countries. In Norway, Joergen Marthinsen produced the textbook: Arkivdanning. Veiledning i arkivarbeid for use in the training of records managers and archivists. In Finland, Pirkko Rastas, has written Arkistotoimi ja asiakirjahallinto, which was designed for training records managers, but which is also used in the basic training of archivists.
Most of the textbooks and manuals mentioned above are suitable for training of archivists although some of the oldest are partly out of date. However, it remains difficult to find a book covering the whole field of archives administration. Thus, in teaching the subject, any one manual must normally be supplemented with other books or articles. The Bibliography includes therefore some publications in specialist areas which can be used in addition to the more general works.
Some sections of the manuals become outdated sooner than others. Therefore the new Dutch manual in a loose-leaf format seems a practical solution. Archievbeheer in practijk, written by three authors: A. van Giessel, F.C.J. Ketelaar and A.J.M. den Teuling, first appeared in 1986, and 12 supplements to it have been published since. Some parts of it are still being prepared, but when completed in 1991, as intended, it should have about 1200 pages.
The Basic Manual Series published by The Society of American Archivists resembles the Dutch loose-leaf edition. Each manual in this series is a separate publication dealing with one archival function or practice. There are two series. The first consists (according to the description of David Gracy II) of introductory and advanced "how to" information. The second contains practical explanations, examples, and illustrations that help archivists extend and improve the capabilities of their repositories.
Archival institutions in many countries produce their own guidebooks to records management and archives administration which may be very useful in planning corresponding activities in other countries. Unfortunately, this type of guide tends to be printed in small quantities, with the result that archives services elsewhere learn about them only by chance.
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