Then, an essential ritual practice in the spiritual life of the ethnic groups Tày, Nùng and Thái, reflects concepts about human beings, nature and the universe. Then ceremonies describe a journey in which the Then Master controls ghost soldiers travelling from earth to heaven to present items of worship and prayers for peace, good crops, health, etc. During the practice, the Then Master sings and plays a tính lute, wearing ceremonial dress. Then is always transmitted orally while the rituals are conducted, reflecting its succession across the generations.
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